Cell Division

Nicole Bermudez

Cell Cycle

The first stage of the cell cycle is interphase. Interphase is the phase before the cell divides. In interphase there are three more steps G1, S, and G2. The first step G1 is when the protein synthesis, chloroplast and mitochondria replication all occur. The next stage is the S step when DNA replication occurs. The final stage in interphase is G2. In this stage the cell is preparing for cell division. There are four stages in mitosis which happens next in the cell cycle. They stages are prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. Finally, the last stage in the cell cycle is cytokinesis where the cytoplasm divides to form two daughter cells.

Mitosis

The process of mitosis is divided into 6 stages. The Interphase, Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase, and cytokinasis. At Interphase, there is only one cell, but after cytokinasis there are two identical cells.

Before mitosis can take place, the cell need to store enough energy to drive the chemical processes during the cell division. During this period of time, there is intense cellular activity. The cell grows in size. The length of the grow phase varies between a few hours to a few months. We the cell has stored enough energy, it is ready to divide itself.

Meiosis

1. Prophase I Homologous chromosomes pair up and form tetrad

2. Anaphase I Spindle fibers move homologous chromosomes to opposite sides

3. Telophase II Nuclear membrane reforms, cytoplasm divides, 4 daughter cells formed

4. Metaphase II Chromosomes line up along equator, not in homologous pairs

5. Prophase I Crossing-over occurs

6. Anaphase II Chromatids separate

7. Metaphase I Homologs line up alone equator

8. Telophase I Cytoplasm divides, 2 daughter cells are formed

Cell Cycle Quiz

1. __________ only occur(s) in the gonads to produce gametes.

Mitosis
Meiosis
Mitosis and meiosis
Sporogony
Schizogony



2. Which of the following is mitosis not used for?

Repair (of a wound) in multicellular organisms
Asexual reproduction in unicellular organisms
Development (e.g., baby in mother's womb)
Production of gametes
All of the above use mitosis



3. During which stage of mitosis do the centromeres split?

Prophase
Interphase
Anaphase
Telophase
Synthesis stage



4. During which stage of mitosis does cytokinesis usually occur in animals?

Prophase
Metaphase
Anaphase
Telophase
Interphase



5. What is the correct order of the stages of mitosis?
1-Metaphase 2-Telophase 3-Anaphase 4-Prophase


4,1,2,3
2,3,1,4
1,2,3,4
1,3,2,4
4,1,3,2



6. During which stage of meiosis do the sister chromatids begin to move toward the poles?

Prophase I
Telophase I
Anaphase II
Anaphase I
Telophase II



7. During which stage of meiosis do tetrads line up at the equator?

Metaphase I
Telophase I
Metaphase II
Anaphase II
Anaphase I



8. In both mitosis and meiosis, sister chromatids seperate during anaphase, but there are _____ haploid daughter nuclei produced by meiosis compared to ______ diploid nuclei by mitosis.

6,3,
4,2
2,4
3,6
9,1



9. During which stage of mitosis does the nuclear envelope begin to disappear?

Metaphase I
Telophase I
Anaphase II
Prophase I
Metaphase II



10. When _______________ occurs between nonsister chromatids genetic exchange between chromosomes provides new combination of genes that are different from either parent.

cytokinesis
crossing-over
mitosis
cell division
centromeres splitting


Mitosis Quiz

1. During which phase of mitosis do the chromosomes line up along the middle of the dividing cell?

A. Prophase

B. Metaphase

C. Anaphase

D. Telophase

2. The two main stages of the cell cycle are called

A. mitosis and interphase

B. telophase and cytokinesis

C. interphase and anaphase

D. cytokinesis and mitosis

3. The first phase of mitosis is called

A. prophase

B. anaphase

C. metaphase

D. interphase

4. Sea stars are genetically different from each other and from their parents. These genetic differences are the result of

A. mitosis

B. cloning

C. sexual reproduction

D. asexual reproduction

5. A protein called p53 can keep cells from dividing. To prevent cell division, this protein most likely stops

A. osmosis

B. mitosis

C. respiration

D. mutation

6. When the DNA in a cell is uncoiled and spread throughout the nucleus it is called

A. chromosomes

B. chromatids

C. centromeres

D. chromatin

7. DNA in a cell is copied during

A. G1 phase

B. G2 phase

C. cytokinesis

D. S phase

8. The spindle fibers are produced by the

A. centrioles

B. nucleus

C. chromosomes

D. chromatin

9. Cleavage furrows form in which type of cells?

A. plants

B. bacteria and plants

C. animal

D. all of the above

10. Cells spend most of their time in what phase?

A. cytokinesis

B. prophase

C. mitosis

D. interphase

meiosis quiz

1. Which of the following is a phase of mitosis?

A. cytokinesis

B. interphase

C. prophase

D. S phase

2. If the parent cell starts out with 24 Chromosome and undergoes mitosis, then how many will the daughter cells have?

A. 48

B. 12

C. 5

D. 24

3. The principle of dominance states that:

A. all alleles are dominant

B. all alleles are recessive

C. some alleles are dominant and others recessive

D. alleles are niether dominant nor recessive

4. In the punnet square shown, curly hair (C) is dominant over straight hair (c)? Which of the following is true about the offspring resulting from the cross?

A. about half are expected to have straight hair

B. all are expected to have straight hair

C. about half are expected to have curly hair

D. all are expected to have curly hair

5. What is the last phase of mitosis?

A. telephase

B. interphase

C. metaphase

D. prophase

6. Organisms that have 2 identical alleles for a trait are called what?

A. hybird

B. homozygous

C. heterozygous

D. dominant

7. Put the following stages in the cell cycle in order.

A. 5,3,1,2,4

B. 3,1,4,2,5

C. 4,1,2,5,3

D. 2,3,1,5,4

8. In Meiosis if the parent cells has 40 chromosomes, then how many will the daughter cells have?

A. 40

B. 10

C. 20

D. 18

9. Which is an example of an heterozygous allele?

A. Tt

B. tt

C. TT

D. NONE OF THE ABOVE

10. Meiosis produces which of the following?

A. plant cells

B. animal cells

C. sex cells

D. skin cells

Answer Key

cell cycle quiz

b,d,c,d,e,c,a,b,d,b


Mitosis quiz

b,a,a,d,b,d,d,a,c,d


Meiosis quiz

c,d,c,d,a,b,d,c,a,c