Chemistry of life

Demian Rosales And Jada Richardson

Characteristics of water

  • Water is attracted to other substances. (adhesion)
  • Water is also attracted to substances of the same kind. (cohesion)
  • Water is polar so it allows many other substances to dissolve in water. (polarity)
  • Water absorbs heat more slowly and keeps the energy for a long amount of time. (heat storage)
  • Water has the number seven on the scale that measures how acidic something is. (pH scale)
  • When salt is evenly distributed in water it makes a salt water solution. (solutions)


Macromolecules

  • Macromolecules are molecules that contain very large numbers of atoms, such as proteins, nucleic acids, etc.
  • There are four types of macromolecules.
  • The four types of macromolecules are proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and carbohydrates.
  • All organic macromolecules have carbon in them.


Carbohydrates

  • Carbohydrates are made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
  • Carbohydrates are a key source of energy.
  • Carbohydrates are a type of macromolecules.
  • Building blocks of carbohydrates are single sugars called monosaccharides.
  • Types of carbohydrates are simple and complex.
  • Three functions of carbohydrates are to provide energy and regulate blood glucose, dietary fiber, and breakdown of fatty acids.
  • Three examples of carbohydrates are pasta, bread, and candy.
  • carbohydrates are a key source of energy for the body.
  • monosaccharides are the primary source of energy for the body and di-saccharides is a another type of energy
  • polysaccharides are chained in three in hundreds.

Proteins

  • Proteins are built up of amino acids.
  • Twenty different amino acids can be found in proteins.
  • Proteins fold into compact shapes which determines how the proteins amino acids interact with water and one another.
  • Two types of proteins are hemoglobin and collagen.
  • Anti-bodies are also a protein, they help your body to fight off infections.


Lipids

  • Lipids are different types of fats that store energy.
  • Types of lipids are saturated and unsaturated acids.
  • Unsaturated fats are liquids at room temperature.
  • Saturated fats are solid at room temperature.
  • Other lipids include some light absorbing compounds called pigments.
  • Lipids make up the outer layer of skin.


Nucleic acids

  • A nucleic acid is a long chain of smaller molecules called nucleotides,
  • A nucleotide has three parts a sugar, a base, and a phosphate group.
  • There are three types of nucleic acids DNA, RNA, and ATP.
  • DNA stores hereditary information.
  • RNA acts as an enzyme, promoting the chemical reactions that link amino acids to form proteins.
  • ATP breaks down food molecules inside of cells, some of the energy is temporarily stored in ATP.


Enzymes

  • Enzymes are molecules that are organic in nature and cause chemical reactions.
  • Every enzyme has a function that is determined by its shape.
  • Enzymes react with substrates at a active site.
  • high temperature cause the kinetic energy to increase causing more chemical reactions.
  • Low temperature cause slower kinetic energy that slows down the chemical reaction.
  • When the PH increases, enzyme activity increase til it hits an optimal point.