African National Congress (ANC)

By Cameron Suls

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Description

The ANC was created in 1912 by hundreds of "mission-educated, conservative African men" in response to the reinforcement of stricter laws by the British in 1910. This group was organized to oppose the system of apartheid and passively resist using peaceful protests and civil disobedience. They started using mass action as a way to achieve their goals, as seen in the 1952 Defiance Campaign. This protest was organized to force the government into repealing the apartheid legislation. Although the outcome was not as successful as hoping, the ANC was finally able to coordinate a national campaign with many different ethnic groups involved. The ANC group also became more widely known as a nation and worldwide which was a huge advantage.


The ANC played a major role in the struggle against ending apartheid. They became one of the largest organizations with widespread support from several different ethnic groups. Although many of their organized protests seemed to do little effect on the demolishing of apartheid, each protest had led them closer and closer to their equality. The ANC had taken action and brought together several other anti-apartheid groups to form the Congress Alliance. A meeting of the Congress of the People took place where the Freedom Charter, created by the Congress Alliance, was approved. This document served as a constitution for South Africa and granted back their equality. Without the ANC's determination, persistence, and leadership, apartheid may not have ended when it did.

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References

Bibliography

African national congress (South Africa) (1999) Available at: http://www.crwflags.com/fotw/flags/za%7Danc.html (Accessed: 15 November 2015).

BBC (2009) A peaceful ANC protest against apartheid in Johannesburg, 1952. Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/education/clips/zvq3kqt (Accessed: 15 November 2015).

Freedom in Our Lifetime: South Africa’s Struggle (2006) 2nd edn. Providence, RI: Watson Institute for International Studies, Brown University.

The spirit of the freedom charter integral to south Africa’s DNA (no date) Available at: http://www.brandsouthafrica.com/press-room/1227-the-spirit-of-the-freedom-charter-integral-to-south-africa-s-dna (Accessed: 15 November 2015).

(no date) Available at: https://nonstopagainstapartheid.files.wordpress.com/2012/06/img_0906.jpg (Accessed: 15 November 2015).

Citations, Quotes & Annotations

African national congress (South Africa) (1999) Available at: http://www.crwflags.com/fotw/flags/za%7Danc.html (Accessed: 15 November 2015).

(African national congress (South Africa), 1999)

BBC (2009) A peaceful ANC protest against apartheid in Johannesburg, 1952. Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/education/clips/zvq3kqt (Accessed: 15 November 2015).

(BBC, 2009)

Freedom in Our Lifetime: South Africa’s Struggle (2006) 2nd edn. Providence, RI: Watson Institute for International Studies, Brown University.

(Freedom in Our Lifetime: South Africa’s Struggle, 2006)

The spirit of the freedom charter integral to south Africa’s DNA (no date) Available at: http://www.brandsouthafrica.com/press-room/1227-the-spirit-of-the-freedom-charter-integral-to-south-africa-s-dna (Accessed: 15 November 2015).

(The spirit of the freedom charter integral to south Africa’s DNA, no date)

(no date) Available at: https://nonstopagainstapartheid.files.wordpress.com/2012/06/img_0906.jpg (Accessed: 15 November 2015).