Martin Luther

The Renaissance

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Biography

Connection to criteria

In 1517, a German monk and Professor, Martin Luther, started a revolt against the Catholic Church for selling indulgences. He was feared by the Church because the revolts he started led thousands of people to reject the Catholic relogion and in turn, the church lost power. The ends justified his means from his standpoint because what the church was doing in his eyes was imoral.

Places lived

  1. 1483-Born in Eisleben, Germany.
  2. 1483-Family moves to Mansfield Germany.
  3. 1501-Luther studies at Erfurt University.
  4. 1514-Becomes priest of Wittenburg's city church.
  5. 1546-Luther dies in Eisleben, Germany.

Facts about life, for whom he worked for

Martin Luther started out as a peasant. His father workesd hard in a mining factory to raise money to send Martin to school. 1440-Luther was sent to Latin school. 1505-Recieved master's of arts. In July 2, 1505, Luther experienced a terible storm where he promised to devote his life to God if He would allow him to survive.

Martin worked for the University of Wittenburg as a professor of theology. Later he became the priest of the Wittenburg City Church.

Famous works

Event/Action: 95 Theses

Cause: John Tetzel sold indulgences that he claimed would free family member from purgatory. This was done to raise money to rebuild St. Peter's Cathedral in Rome.

Effect: Luther, a priest at the Wittenburg City Church, was outraged. He drew up 95 reasons why Tetzel shouldn't be selling the indulgences and how they were immoral. He believed you could be saved by faith alone. With the aid of the printing press, Luther's theses were distributed across Europe where furious debate arose, and Luther gained many followers.

Event/Action: Translating the Bible

Cause: After the Diet of Worms, where Luther refused to Emperor to recant his teachings, Luther was kidnapped by Prince Fredrick who helped him hide from his enemies. At this time, he lived in the top of a castle where he translated the New Testament into German, the common language.

Effect: As a result, more people were able to read the bible and translate the meanings for themselves.

Event/Action: Peace of Augsburg

Cause: Martin Luther made three principles of Protestantism the people went by:

  1. Justification by faith alone.
  2. Authority of scripture alone.
  3. Priesthood of all believers (everyone has responsibility to share their faith).
These writings gained Luther thousands of peasant supporters who later led the Peasant Revolt of 1524. Peasants revolted for a change in social and religious conditions. Luther denounced it, but the violence continued. In turn, thousands were killed to cease the defiance.

Effect: Charles V, seeing that an agreement upon religions needed to be made, reached a settlement in 1555 with the Lutheran princes called the Peace of Augsburg. This allowed each prince to decide which religion would be followed in his lands.