Bacteria & Viruses TEKS

By: Shane Sampson

4A: What's an example of prokaryotic cell and eukaryotic cell? Explain their characteristics, differences, and similarities.

There are two categories that living cells fall under and those are eukaryotic and prokaryotic. These two types of cells have many things that differ from each other but yet, they still seem to have some common similarities. This causes for the two categories to be created and helps us identify which category an organism may fall under. For example, all animals and plants are eukaryotic but all bacteria and archaea are prokaryotic. You can also look at the characteristics of a cell and determine which category it goes into. For instance, if you see that a cell is unicellular, then it is prokaryotic because eukaryotic cells are only multicellular.
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4A: Enrichment Question

There are lots of characteristics that the scientists can use in order for him to determine which of the two species is being killed off by the virus. One way you can determine which one it is is by observing a cell from the species. You can look to see if the virus is in it and is reproducing inside of the cells. If so, the. This is happening at a rapid rate and soon, many other cells will be like this one. By doing this you can determine which species has the virus inside of it and is dying from it. An example of a possible virus that could be inside would be a virus that reproduces quickly using the lyric cycle so it could be a virus as severe as the Swine Flu or as simple as a cold.

4B: Why are bacteria affected by antibiotics but not viruses? What is the difference between them that separates them from the potency of antibiotics?

Antibiotics are very crucial in fighting against bacteria yet, have little to no effect on viruses. There are some reasons for this but the main reason is due to the fact that bacteria is a living organisms while virus aren't. This largely affects the potency of the antibiotic and whether or not it will have any effect. However, just because viruses aren't living and bacteria are, this isn't the only reason why they are immune to antibiotics. Another reason why viruses aren't effected by antibiotics is because viruses are structured differently than bacteria. Viruses don't have cell walls and most antibiotics attack the cell wall of something and no matter what, the virus still won't be affected. An example of this is when a virus migrates to a host cell and the host cell is effected by antibiotics. The host cell's cell wall will become destroyed and the cell will burst but the virus still isn't harmed and can move to out. However, if a bacteria cell is effected by an antibiotic, then it's cell wall will become destroyed and the cell will die. Therefore, viruses are immune to antibiotics while bacteria can still be impacted by them. This is due to the structures of both of these and that one of them is living while the other one is non-living. In conclusion, the power of antibiotics varies when used on a bacteria cell compared to a virus.

4B: How do viruses reproduce?

Viruses are reliant on host cells for a variety of things. One of the many things they rely on them for is reproduction but viruses don't reproduce asexually. The reason why viruses have to rely on a host cell and can't just reproduce on their own is because the host cell has certain parts that the virus doesn't have in order to reproduce. Here is an example of how the cycle goes. First the cycle begins when a virus overtakes a host cell and become attached to them. The next thing the virus does is inject it's genetic information into the host cell. Then once the virus has entered the cell, the virus uses the cell's parts to reproduce and to repopulate which in most cases causes for the cell to die. This cycle high is called the lytic cycle, can go on and on throughout someone's body and can cause someone to become ill. Through this process, viruses are able to grow in numbers and rapidly take over a group of cells within an organism.
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4C: Why are viruses so deadly?

Viruses may be microscopic, but they are still very lethal. Different viruses have killed millions of people worldwide and take no mercy on anyone. There is not any antibiotic that can kill a virus and that is part of the reason why it is so deadly. Viruses don't have a cell wall and a vast majority of antibiotics attack the cell wall so it doesn't affect them. This helps the viruses become more lethal because they are not able to be killed by drugs so they are able to survive in the body for a long time. Another reason why viruses are so deadly is because they are able to go inside cells and affect them. For example, when viruses reproduce, they insert themselves inside the host cell to use their parts in order to reproduce. This also affects the cells because usually when this happens, the host cell dies. These two factors and many more can cause for viruses to become extra lethal and give them the edge that they need in order overrule a system.

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4C: Name a virus and its effect on a cell

Most viruses in this World aren't harmful and can in some scenarios, help us. However, there are also some viruses that have a tremendous effect on the human body and can potentially be life-threatening. One virus that has a strong impact on cells is the Ebola virus. In the summer of 2014, there was a mass breakout of Ebola that started in Africa but eventually spread to other countries. One reason why the Ebola virus is so deadly is because systems don't start showing from anywhere between two to twenty one days so by the time you realize you have Ebola, it may already be too late to get help. Ebola has a big impact on all the cells in your organs and the cells in your tissue. An example of how Ebola effects you is once it gets in the body and it hijacks cells and replicates quickly and by doing so, lots of the offspring damage lots of other cells. It then infects cells which line blood cells and cause internal bleeding to the host. This impacts the human body and cells inside of it greatly and as a result, the Ebola virus is able to takeover. In conclusion, lots of viruses such as the Ebola virus have devastating effects on cells and the human body.

11B: What is an endospore and how does it affect people?

An endospore is a structure created when a cluster of bacteria is formed. This cluster is formed in order to keep the bacterium safe in its environment during a time of environmental stress. In order to stay safe from harmful gamma rays, ultra-violet rays, lysozyme, starvation, and bad temperatures, endospores are often found in soil or in bodies of water. Endospores aren't very good for farmers and has caused them many problems. One problem that it has caused them is that they spoil crops and farmers are now having to spend lots of money in order to get rid of them. Another way they cause problems is by creating toxins that poison vegetation and can cause food poisoning to those who eat it. Therefore, endospores are just groups of bacterium trying to survive but yet cause us danger and could be lethal to us if we come in contact.

11B: What are the long term effects of viruses?

Viruses can be very deadly and some have little survival rates. However, if you do manage to survive from these viruses, there are often times long-term effects that you have to go through. One example of a virus that causes long-term effects is West Nile. No matter how mild or serve your case of West Nile may be, you will still always have the same long-term effects. The long-term effects of West Nile include fatigue, depression, memory difficulties, headaches, extreme weakness and a few other symptoms. These symptoms can effects that could last thirteen months and still create problems for you. Another virus that has long-term effects is HIV. A long-term effect from HIV is gaining more fat in places such as your face, belly, legs, and arms. This affects how your body can control certain sugars and fats throughout your body. In conclusion, there are lots of viruses such as West Nile and HIV that affect your long-term health and may cause you problems over a long period of time.