# Electricity

## How does electricity work?

Electricity is a form of energy that is derived from electrons which are particles in the outer shells of the atom. Electricity Is able to be harnessed by using a material that is able to conduct electricity and form a current with the electrons. The current is able to pass electrons to a desired source of output such as an electron. However, there must be a source of input as well that provides the positive and negative charges to repel and attract electrons. When a current in the form of a wire or any other form of a conductor is attached to a battery and a light bulb or source of output, this is known as a circuit. In order for a circuit to work it must be closed meaning that there is no break in the circuit that the current cannot go through. This happens when there is a break in the wire. If the circuit is not closed and working, it is known as an open circuit.
Voltage, Current and Resistance

## Science behind electrons

Electrons are small particles that reside in the outer shells of atoms and are negatively charged as oppose to the protons which reside in the nucleus of the atom. In metals all of the atoms are converted to ions since they lose their electrons. The electrons flow freely throughout all of the particles and this is what allows electricity to flow throughout the atoms inside metals. There are positively charged ions and negatively charged electrons which makes metals very strong yet also very conductive because of the electrons.

## What is the Ohm's law and Electricity

1. Electricity is a form of energy, that we use every day, which comes from charged particles such as protons or electrons.

2. Atoms are the smallest piece of a pure element that you can possibly have. Electrons are particles that reside in the outer shell of atoms which carry a negative charge.

3. Current electricity is the stronger form of electricity which is carried by electrons through a conductive material such as a wire or metal. Requires source of electricity output such as a battery.

4. Static electricity is an electric charge which is produced by natural forms of energy such as friction which cause sparks or the attraction of small particles such as dust or hair.

5. Ohm’s law teaches that the current through a wire or other conductor residing between two given points, is proportional to the amount of space between the two points.

6. In electricity the V stands for voltage. Also, in electricity R stands for Resistance, and I stands for current.

7. The voltage is equal to the current multiplied by the resistance. Also, all three are units of measurement for electricity.

8. Then the current increases when voltage is increased and the resistance stays the same

The current goes down if resistance is increased while voltage is constant.

## Types of current flow and different types of circuits

Series circuits are made up of 5 parts. These 5 parts are the Resistor, appliance, Conductor, switch, and battery. We need resistors because they decrease the voltage so that it does not overload the circuit and so that the circuit does not short out. Without the resistors there is no way of decreasing the voltage and the circuit will short out and explode. The main difference between series circuits and parallel circuits is that in series circuits there is only one pathway to the circuit with multiple sources of output along the circuit. This means that if any of the light bulbs in the circuit go out then all of the light bulbs stop working since the circuit is no longer complete. On the contrary, parallel circuits have multiple pathways for the current and if one of the light bulbs or sources of out put stop working then the others will still work. This comes at a cost though, much more power is required to run a parallel circuit than the power required to run a series circuit because of all the pathways in parallel circuits. Conductors are able to influence the flow of electricity or heat in a certain pathway so that it goes to a certain source of output. Insulators are materials that are able to stop the flow of electricity through a circuit and are what protect conductors from being affected by outside materials. Conventional current flow is the assumption that electrons flow out of the positive terminal in batteries to the negative terminal. This is incorrect and what was believed by the people before more knowledge of electricity was gained. On the contrary, actual current flow is how the current really flows which is from the negative terminal to the positive terminal.
Series and Parallel Circuits