S'MORE KNOWLEDGE FOR YOUR NOGGIN

Modern Era 1750-1900

Evan Lukat

1793 - Chinese reject British requests for open trade

In 1793, British monarch, King George III sent ambassador, George Macartney to request a meeting with Chinese Emperor, Qianlong regarding permission to set up a trading port in Peking. One month later, Emperor Qianlong denied the British request.

1798 - Napoleon invades Eqypt

In 1798, French Emperor, Napoleon Bonaparte traveled to Egypt with 400 ships and 54,000 men. He also took with him 150 scientists to study Egyptian culture. Though the military invasion was deemed as a failure, the scientific exploration was a great success.

1830's - Famine and rebellions in Japan

Flooding and cold weather caused the Tenpo famine in 1833 and lasted for four years causing riots and revolts throughout Japan because corrupt officials refused to help. These rebellions made the Tokugawa bafuku look weak to US merchants and exposed the corrupt officials responsible for profiting off of the struggle of their people.

1838-1842 - First Opium War in China

Countries like Britain had a high demand for Chinese products but had little to return to China in exchange. China didn't like these unequal treaties so they began to cut ties with traders from Western Europe. Foreign powers began illegally transporting Opium from India into China during the Qing dynasty for roughly 100 years. Chinese officials became addicted to the drug which led to social and economic failure in the China. After finally acknowledging the Opium problem, China decided to put a halt on trades involving the drug. There was a problem with those foreign powers like Britain, which led to war. China would lose the war and inevitably gave way to Britain setting up territorial concessions in China.

1838-1876 - Tanzimat Reforms in the Ottoman Empire

Reorganization and reform took place in the Ottoman Empire due to European influences. This reorganization was intended to fundamentally change the empire from a system based on theocratic principles to a more modern state.

1850-1864 - Taiping Uprising in China

Radical political and religious turmoil caused a rebellion in 19th century China. The rebellious fight stretched over 17 provinces and caused an estimated 20 million casualties. This is considered to be one of the most important events during the 1800's in China and drastically altered the Qing Dynasty.

1856-1858 - Second Opium War in China

The British sought to increase their trading rights in China while the Qing dynasty was attempting to heal from the Taiping Uprising. The British decided to exploit their excuses to declare yet another war. As tensions grew tighter, France chose to defend Britain in the war. Once again, the foreign powers were victorious and gained access to trading territories of their choosing.

1868 - Meiji Restoration in Japan

In mid 19th century Japan, a chain of events led to the restoration of practical imperial rule in Japan. Under Emperor Meiji, Japan wanted to combine modern advances with traditional eastern values. They viewed colonial powers as a major threat and didn't want to fall to the modern world. Their solution was to become a modern world country while still holding true to their Japanase values.

1899-1901 - Boxer Rebellion in China

In the late years of the Qing Dynasty in China, an organization known as the Society of the Righteous and Harmonious Fists(the "Boxers") started a self-strengthening movement and rebelled against Western and Japanese influence due to a resounding devotion to Chinese nationalism. The Great powers of the US, GB, Russia, France, Germany, etc defeated these rebels and preserved freedom and equality in China.