England during 16th & 17th century
by Kara, Philip, and Michelle
Conflicts in between Kings of England and its parliament caused a civil war, an execution of a King and a revolution. With the death of Queen Elizabeth in 1603, the Tudor dynasty ended, and the Stuart Dynasty began.
List of important rulers/names and dates ruled
Elizabeth Tudor: 1558-1603
James I: 1603-1625
Charles I: 1625-1649
Charles II: 1660-1685
James II: 1685-1688
William III: 1689-1702
Elizabeth Tudor→ became queen in 1558→ in her reign the small island became→ leader of protestant nations of Europe→ and laid foundations for world empire
Elizabeth→ Intelligent, careful, self confident→ she moved quickly to solve difficult religious issues→ inherited by her half christian sister Queen Mary Tudor
favored catholics (made laws favoring catholics)
New Act of Supremacy→ name Elizabeth→ to be the “the only supreme governor” of both church and state
Church Of England→ when following Queen Elizabeth→ followed a moderate protestantism that kept most people satisfied
moderate in foreign policy → tried to keep Spain and France from becoming too powerful→ by balancing power→ example) If one nation seemed to be gaining too much power→ England would support the weaker nation
- feared war would be bad for England and for her own rule→ but could not escape conflict with Spain
reigned from 1603-1625
started the Stuart line of rulers
believed that he received his power from God and was responsible only to God-called the divine right of kings
Puritans did not like the king’s strong defense of the Church of England
while members of the Church of England, the Puritans wished to make the church more Protestant
He reigned for 24 years
Many times did not get along with Parliament
His forces were defeated and he was sentenced to death
He died on January 30, 1649
He wanted to be remembered as an “honest man and a good king”
his death was used by Parliament to show the world about the “divine right” of Kings Charles II
son of charles I
push his own ideas → clearly out of step with many English people
sympathetic to Catholicism
took bold step to suspending the laws that Parliament had passed against Catholics and Puritans→ after restoration of the monarchy
decided to convert to Catholicism
left no heirs to his throne
was put to power to restore the monarchy
Parliament kept most of its power that it had won and still played a major role in Government, therefore the Restoration of the Stuart Monarchy did not mean that the work of the English Revolution was over. Parliament also must give its consent to the taxation and that was accepted
Charles still pushed through with his own ideas
James II took his throne→ 1685
became king→ 1685
was open and devout catholic
Named catholics to high positions in government, army, navy, and universities
parliament objected to James's policies but stopped short of rebellion
member knew James was old → protestant daughters→ Mary and Anne→ born to his first wife would succeed him
- in 1688→ James and 2nd wife a catholic had a son= possibility of a catholic monarchy loomed large
William and Mary
William of Orange
sent by dutch leader to invade England
informed that the people wanted a change
William,(his wife) Mary, and daughter of James II→ in difficult position
a foe of France’s Catholic King Louis XIV→ welcomed this opportunity to fight France with England resources
made preparations to invade England in early 1688
tried to hide plans from james
James realized william’s intention later in early october
November 1688→ William’s forces landed at Torbay→ and marched down to London
fought against James's soldiers= blood shed and was called “Glorious Revolution”
issue became who would be the monarch ?
1689→ William and Mary were offered the throne by the parliment
they accepted, along with Bill of Rights
the wife of William of Orange and daughter of James II
Mary and her husband were in a difficult position when they found out that most of the people in their kingdom wanted a change
Mary’s father, James II, was the King of England
It would’ve been bad for Mary to rise up against her father
She didn’t really like her father
Sees opportunity to overthrow her father’s reign to fix things she doesn't see is right
- Her husband takes advantage of the opportunity to fight against France using England’s supplies
Legacy of the Empire
Supporters/Religion of empire or monarchs
William of orange
What changed during the period?
tudor dynasty ending → protestant→ stuart dynasty--. James the first wants to bring divine right of kings→ he changed it to absolutism→ which comes from divine right of kings→ absolutism =having absolute power-->does not work because of parliament,
New ideas originated from the empire
After this time period Kings and Queens did not have absolute power most of the power was given to the Parliament
- They couldn’t just do whatever they wanted anymore they had to be monitored
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