Johnson's Reconstruction Plan

Summary

After the assassination of President Lincoln, his Vice President, Andrew Johnson took over. Unfortunately, this change in leadership happened during reconstruction after the civil war, resulting in changed policies from Lincoln to Johnson.

Freedmen's Bureau

Freedmen's Bureau was established by Congress in 1865 to assist freed slaves and poor citizens after the civil war. These people needed help due to the crash of the plantation market that came with the end of slavery.


The Bureau offered food, housing, and medical aid as well as established schools. Unfortunately, the Bureau had a lack of funding and could not follow through with it's plans. The Bureau was official cut off in 1872.


Johnson's reaction to this was negative. He did not appreciate the fact that it would invade on the southern states and felt that it would be stripping the Southern States of their rights, which was a cause of the Civil War.

The Civil Rights Bill of 1866

This bill declared that all people born on U.S. soil would be considered citizens of the country (excluding natives). This bill promised fair treatment regardless of race. Considered a huge step in civil rights, especially for it's time.


Johnson did not think that this was a good idea, and had originally vetoed the bill. He felt that it would lead to "centralization and the concentration of all legislative power in the national Government".

Black Codes

Black codes were laws passed by Southern States during the mid 1860's. These laws essentially made segregation mandatory. These laws included; low wages, no voting, and did not allow African Americans to learn how to read or write.


Andrew Johnson actually backed these codes, as he was from the South and owned slaves for quite some time in a border state. Before running for Vice President, Andrew Johnson was a well-known racist!