Cholesterol

How do LDL and HDL differ structurally and functionally?

LDL and HDL differ structurally because LDL is made up of 50% cholesterol and 20% proteins, while HDL is made up of 20% cholesterol and 50% proteins. Also, HDL particles are more dense than LDL particles. Another structure difference would be that LDL contains a protein called B-100, and HDL contains the proteins called A-I and A-II. Functionally, they both deliver cholesterol but they deliver it to different places. LDL carries the cholesterol to your cells, and HDL carries cholesterol away from your organs and brings it to your liver, where you release it. (Kamps)
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How are the concentrations of LDL and HDL associated with the risk of heart disease and associated disorders?

LDL is the main cause of cholesterol being built up and clogging in your arteries, creating plaque. When this plaque is so heavily built up, it causes problems including heart diseases and disorders. (WebMD)
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What do the results of a cholesterol test mean? How do patients interpret each value?

Your cholesterol test results will show you your cholesterol levels including your total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, and triglycerides in mg/dL. There are normal ranges for each of them. The normal range for total cholesterol is less than 200 mg/dL, for your LDL it's less than 100 mg/dL, for your HDL it's 40 mg/dL or more, and lastly, for your triglycerides the normal range is less than 150 mg/dL. Patients interpret their results by determining if they need to change anything to get into those normal ranges and if so, what they need to change. (American Heart Association)
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How does intake of saturated, unsaturated, and trans fat affect cholesterol levels and overall health?

Saturated and trans fats raise your blood cholesterol levels. This puts you at risk for heart disease and atherosclerosis. Too many unsaturated fats, such as canola oil and olive oil, can cause obesity along with heart disorders. (Bellows)
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Documentation of Sources

American Heart Association. (n.d.). What your cholesterol levels mean. Retrieved from http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/Cholesterol/AboutCholesterol/What-Your-Cholesterol-Levels-Mean_UCM_305562_Article.jsp?gclid=CIeIpYPgnsMCFQmNaQodvqwAtg

Bellows, L. (n.d.). Dietary fat and cholesterol. Retrieved from http://www.ext.colostate.edu/pubs/foodnut/09319.html

Kamps, A. (n.d.). How do ldl and hdl differ structurally and functionally? Retrieved from http://healthyeating.sfgate.com/ldl-hdl-differ-structurally-functionally-2003.html

WebMD. (n.d.). Heart disease and lowering cholesterol. Retrieved from http://www.webmd.com/heart-disease/guide/heart-disease-lower-cholesterol-risk