Psycho-Social Stages of Development
Ashley Pfenning & Katie Rayburn
Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial Development
-People progress through stages of personality development based on their resolution of conflicts between potentially positive or negative outcomes of behavioral changes
Social and emotional development continue throughout life
-Believed that all children progress through a predictable series of changes
-Believed that each individual’s ultimate goal is the quest for identity
-Early childhood experiences and conflict resolution
-Each stage represents a central psychosocial conflict that must be resolved and understood for healthy development to occur
-Emphasized that in addition to mediating between id impulses and superego demands, the ego makes a positive contribution to development, acquiring attitudes and skills that make the individual an active, contributing member of society
Erikson's Stages Song!
1. Trust Vs. Mistrust
-Infants must form trusting relationships with parents/caregivers.
-If care is poor, mistrust is then developed.
-Trust is created from warm, interactive care.
2. Autonomy vs. Shame
-As they master skills such as walking and toileting, children begin to develop feeling of autonomy and self-control.
-When these expectations are not met, it can lead to shame and doubt.
-There is a shift from external control of behavior to the child's self-control.
-They begin to use their own judgements instead of their caregiver's in that they want to decide things for themselves
-Parents can encourage autonomy by allowing the child safely explore free choice and not forcing or shaming the child.
3. Initiative vs. Guilt
-Initiative is a sense of ambition and responsibility which develops when parents support their child’s sense of purpose.
-Children take more initiative in dealing with their environment.
-They may experience guilt as a result of conflict with caregivers.
-Through make-believe play, children gain insight into the person they can become.
-If parents demand too much self-control, children experience extra guilt.
4. Industry vs. inferiority
-Children develop industry by successfully dealing with demands to learn new skills; failure of this leads to feelings of inferiority.
-At school, children learn to work and cooperate with others.
-Inferiority develops when negative experiences at home, school, or with friends lead to feelings of incompetence.
5. Identity vs. Role Confusion
-Teenagers need develop a sense of identity in areas of their lives, such as occupation and gender.
-Without identity, they can risk role confusion in adulthood.
-Identity crisis is a temporary period of distress where teenagers experiment with a variety of choices before settling on values and goals.
-By exploring values and vocational goals, the young person forms a personal identity.
-The negative outcome is confusion about future adult roles.
6. Intimacy vs. Isolation
-Young adults need to form intimate relationships or suffer from loneliness and isolation.
-Because of earlier disappointments, some individuals cannot form close bonds and remain isolated.
7. Generativity vs. Stagnation
-Adults must find ways to support future generations, or life cannot move forward.
-Generativity means giving to the next generation through child rearing, caring for others, or productive work.
-The person who fails in these ways feels an absence of meaningful accomplishment.
8. Ego Integrity vs. Despair
-Older adults must come to feel a sense of fulfillment in life or they will experience despair as they face death.
-Integrity results from feeling that life was worth living as it happened.
-Older people who are dissatisfied with their lives fear death.
Key Words and Ideas
id: largest portion of the mind, is the source of basic biological needs and desires.
ego: the conscious, rational part of personality, emerges in early infancy to redirect the id’s impulses so they are discharged in acceptable ways
superego: (3-6yrs is develops) conscience, develops as parents insist that children conform to the values of society