Volume 1, Issue 3, November 2022
Table of Contents
- Staff Spotlight
- Instructional Strategy: Concrete-Representational-Abstract Model for Math
- Behavior Strategy: Antecedent Strategies and Reactive vs Proactive Approaches
- Tech Tool of the Month: Classkick
- Research 101: Single Subject versus Group Design
- Why do you use proactive strategies? - I use proactive strategies, also known as, antecedent interventions, as tools to shape and change the way students interact with the school environment and teach alternative behavior(s). These strategies are unique to each student's positive behavior support program as a way to reduce the frequency or prevent distressed behaviors from occurring, while also teaching socially significant behavior change. Examples of proactive strategies include, but are not limited to Behavior Momentum, Premack Principle, Token Economy, Functional Communication Training, Noncontingent Reinforcement, Time-based schedules of reinforcement, Motivating Operations, Sanitized environment, etc.
- How have you seen the students respond? - When used accurately, antecedent interventions evoke behavior because they have been correlated with an increased availability of positive or negative reinforcement. I believe students sense organization, autonomy, and achievement of skills when proactive strategies are used to assist in academic and behavior learning.
- What do you do if they don't work? - A variety of proactive strategies can be used simultaneously, but that does not mean they are always effective with every student. Always research the proactive strategy before implementation and brainstorm ways on how its evidence-based practice will be achievable in the student's learning environment. Two things I always think of before implementation include conducting a risk-benefit analysis, and pondering questions of social validity. Another great strategy is to ask your behavior specialist to model the antecedent intervention and practice with their feedback!
- What recommendations do you have for other staff using this strategy? - I encourage all teachers, instructional assistants, and related service providers to use proactive strategies during all learning opportunities. Proactively create a learning environment of materials and resources that promote organization, excitement, and established expectations.
Concrete-Representational-Abstract Model for Math
It is important to note, however, that the CRA sequence does not have to be taught in separate lessons as it was by Stroizer et al. (2015). In fact, Morano and colleagues (2020) compared the effectiveness of teaching each step of the CRA sequence separately and using all three steps in one lesson. They found that both approaches led to positive gains in fraction performance for students with disabilities.
Find both articles below to check out!
Antecedent/Proactive Strategies for Challenging Behavior
The goal is to intervene early before the trigger occurs.
- modifications to activities, schedules, or materials
- incorporating choice into instruction and activities
- preparing students for events or changes before they occur (i.e., priming)
- use of behavioral momentum (i.e., begin with a series of easy or high probability tasks before the target or challenging task)
- modifying prompting or reinforcement schedules and delivery
- enriching the environment to provide additional cues or access to materials
It contains the following features:
- audio features for teachers or student responses
- virtual manipulatives
- feedback stickers
- individualized and independently paced work
- and many more!