Bay of Pigs
Nic and Peter
In 1959, Fidel Castro overthrew the Cuban dictator Fulgencio Batista. The U.S. government distrusted Castro and worried of his relationship with Nikita Khrushchev, the leader of the Soviet Union.
Before his inauguration, John F. Kennedy was told about a plan by the CIA developed during the Eisenhower administration to train Cuban exiles, in Guatemala, for an invasion of their homeland. The plan anticipated that the Cuban people and elements of the Cuban military would support the invasion. The ultimate goal was the overthrow of Castro and the establishment of a non-communist government, friendly to the United States.
In March 1961, the 1400 exiles who were trained in Guatemala were sent out into the Bay of Pigs on the south coast of Cuba. Castro’s intelligence already knew about the CIA’s plans of taking Fidel out of power, so they were ready for the attack. Once the attack started, the exiles were either killed or captured at insanely high rates. Once all were dead or captured, the prisoners were held for a year and a half.
After the Bay of Pigs, the CIA has called the operation, the “Perfect Failure”.
So What? How does it connect to the United States- USSR Relations?
"Almost as soon as he came to power, Castro took steps to reduce American influence on the island. He nationalized American-dominated industries such as sugar and mining, introduced land reform schemes and called on other Latin American governments to act with more autonomy. In May 1960, Castro established diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union, and the United States responded by prohibiting the importation of Cuban sugar. To prevent the Cuban economy from collapsing–sugar exports to the United States comprised 80 percent of the country’s total–the USSR agreed to buy the sugar. In January 1961, the U.S. government severed diplomatic relations with Cuba and stepped up its preparations for an invasion. Some State Department and other advisors to the new American president, John F. Kennedy, maintained that Castro posed no real threat to America, but the new president believed that masterminding the Cuban leader’s removal would show Russia, China and skeptical Americans that he was serious about winning the Cold War." (History Channel)
This directly affects the relations between the United States and the USSR because a few years after this, the Cuban Missile Crisis happened (As we have talked about in class). The fact that Castro let the Soviets put their missiles in Cuban territory, and that it was so close to the United States, worries the Americans.
a. United Nations was an international organization, made up of 50 countries, whose purpose was to protect the members against aggression.
b. The Iron curtain divided Europe into the mostly democratic Western Europe and Communist Eastern Europe.
c. Containment was a foreign policy adopted by President Truman to block Soviet influence and stop the expansion of communism.
d. Truman Doctrine was Truman’s support for countries that rejected communism.
e. Marshall Plan was an assistance program where the United States provided food, machinery, and other materials to rebuild Western Europe after the economic turmoil from the war.
f. Cold War is short military action or war over political differences (United States had a Cold War with the Soviet Union).
g. NATO was the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, which was a defensive military alliance between ten western European nations and Canada and the United Sates.
h. Warsaw Pact was the alliance between the Soviet Union, East Germany, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, and Albania.
i. Brinkmanship was the willingness to go to the brink/edge of war that required nuclear weapons, which needed airplanes to deliver them.
2. Which effect of the Cold War was the most significant? Explain.
a. The development and improvement of the science and education programs of the two countries was the most significant effect of the Cold War. This is because both the Soviet Union and the United States were motivated to become smarter, explore, and they ended up creating and launching satellites.
3. What was the purpose in forming the United Nations?
a. The United Nations was formed to protect the members against aggression.
4. What was the goal of the Marshall Plan?
a. The goal of the Marshall Plan was to help rebuild Western Europe after the effects of the war, including a lack of jobs and food.
5. What were the goals of NATO and the Warsaw Pact?
a. The goal of NATO and the Warsaw Pact was to threaten each other and divide the world into two rival camps.
Cuban Missile Crisis
The Right Sector was a group formed by the pro Ukrainian independence believers. There purpose was to fight for their country’s independence. Compared to the Stronghold, we see that the members of Right Sector are strictly fighting for what they believe is right and not fighting for money.