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Scientific Method Notes

1. Identify the problem.

2. Gather Info.

3. Form hypothesis or theory.

4. Test theory, then experiment.

5. Analyze the data.

6. Finally conclude and create a conclusion.

Chapter 1

Lab 1.1- Baking Soda Lab

-Baking soda is also known as sodium bicarbonate.

-Baking soda releases gas when heated.

-Tea is the indicator.

-Control group is the unheated baking soda and tea.

-Experimental group is the heated baking soda and tea.

-When heating soda is heated, it is no longer baking soda.

-Condensation is created when b. soda is heated.

-If the color is different, the the heated b. soda must've been changed.

-Control Factors

a. amount of baking soda.

b. amount of tea.

c. same type of tea.

d. amount of stirring time.

-Experimental Errors

a. Hole in the tubing.

b. Rubber stopper is loose.

c. Tubing isn't in the top of the bottle.

d. Cap burner before removing tube.

-Cubic Centimeters equals Millilitters.

Volume Notes

Unit of Measurement- Cubic Centimeters.

Equation- L x H x W.

1 centimeter equals .01 meter.

100 Centimeters equals 1 meter.

1 mL = 1cm3.

Lab 1.4- Displacement of Water Lab

-Sand + Water - Water = Sand Alone

-Dry Sand - Sand Alone = Air Space

-Experimental Error- Funnel in wrong place.

-is over of = air over dry sand.

Lab 1.8- Paper Square Stuff

-Calculating a single square out of a 20 x 20 square - divide 20 x 20 mass by 400.

-Delta Mass = Change in mass.

-Sensitivity of Balance= Delta Mass divided by # of yes'.

Chapter 2

Lab 2.1- Dissolving Salt!


Lab 2.4- Ice Ice Baby

-Condensation comes from warm water vapor touching the cooler surface of bottle. It changes from gas to liquid.

Conservation of Mass Notes

In a closed system, mass will remain constant, reagard less of the actions of the processes inside the closed system. Mass is always conserved, however in a nuclear reaction some mass is lost. The energy released in a nuclear reaction will be absorbed into surrounding material, add mass to it. So the mass isn't really "lost."

Chapter 3


Property of object: describes the object itself.

Property of substance: identifies what the object is made up of.

Mass and Volume Notes

-Objects that are made of the same substance that have the same volume, will have the same mass. (Regardless of shape.)

-The mass of an object will double if its volume doubles.

-Objects that have the same volume but are made of different substances will not have the same mass.


Mass divided by Volume = Density

Units= g/cm3

Al= Aluminum = 2.7g/cm3

Measuring Volume of a Cube

Start at one corner and measure three directions.

*For accuracy all Lab Partners should check measurements.

Lab 3.5- Metal Object Densities

-Rock was sedimentary, made up of different substances.

Mass Increase = Density Increase

Volume Decrease = Density Increase

Mass Decrease = Density Decrease

Volume Increase = Density Decrease

Lab 3.6- Comparing Liquids with Densities

Magnesium Sulfate - Epsom Salt

Section 3.8- These Shenanigans

Lead : 11.3 = 1000 divided by V, Cross Multiply 11.3v = 1000, Divide by 11.3 = 88.5 cm3

Gold : 19.3 = M divided by 100, Cross Multiply = 1,930.

1.2 x 10^-3 g/cm3= M divided by V, 11m x 17m x 3m. 1100cm, 1700cm, 300cm =5.6 x 108cm3 Final= 6.7x105