Respiratory/Nervous System

The Respiratory System provides oxygen needed for cellular respiration and removes carbon dioxide from the body

How blood is transported.

Oxygen enters the blood from the lungs and carbon dioxide is expelled out of the blood into the lungs. The blood serves to transport both gases. Oxygen is carried to the cells. Carbon dioxide is carried away from the cells.

Alveoli

Sacs at the end of the Bronchioles where oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged
Asthma,Very common

More than 3M US cases per year

A condition in which a person's airways become inflamed, narrow and swell, and produce extra mucus.

Cough: can occur at night or during exercise, can be chronic, with phlegm or dry, mild or severe

Respiratory: breathing through the mouth, wheezing, difficulty breathing, frequent respiratory infections, shortness of breath at night, fast breathing, or hyperventilation

Also common: fast heart rate, throat irritation, chest tightness, anxiety, early awakening, or acute episodes. Steroids: Methylprednisolone by injection


Steroids by inhaling: Budesonide​/​formoterol (Symbicort), Budesonide, Flunisolide (Aerospan), Fluticasone, Beclomethasone, Fluticasone/salmeterol

Other treatments: Albuterol​/​ipratropium by inhaling (Duoneb), Salmeterol by inhaling, Levalbuterol, Tiotropium bromide, Zileuton (Zyflo), Zafirlukast (Accolate), Pirbuterol, Prednisone (Deltasone), Albuterol, Ipratropium by inhaling (Atrovent)



Also common

Preventive: Smoking cessation

Other treatments: Oxygen therapy

Lung Cancer-A cancer that begins in the lungs and most often occurs in people who smoke. Common 200K to 3M US cases per year. Pain: in the rib or chest, can occur while breathing, can be sharp or dull

Cough: can be chronic, with phlegm or dry, severe or with blood

Respiratory: wheezing, frequent respiratory infections, or shortness of breath

Whole body: weakness, loss of appetite, or fatigue

Also common: chest discomfort, hoarseness, swollen lymph nodes, or weight loss. Ifosfamide by injection (Ifex), Erlotinib (Tarceva), Irinotecan by injection, Crizotinib, Gemcitabine by injection (Gemzar), Topotecan by injection, Etoposide by injection (Toposar), Pemetrexed by injection, Docetaxel by injection (Docefrez), Cisplatin by injection (Platinol-AQ), Carboplatin by injection, Bevacizumab by injection, Vinblastine by injection, Doxorubicin by injection (Adriamycin), Paclitaxel by injection (Taxol), Cyclophosphamide, Methotrexate, Gefitinib (Iressa). Chemo therapy

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The Nervous System recognizes and coordinates the body's response to changes in its internal and external environments

Neurons (Nerve Cells) Basic unit of structure and function of the nervous system Long cell with 3 regions1. Cell body2. Dendrites Receive impulses and deliver them to the cell3. Axon Extension of the neuron that carry impulses away from the cell

Brian Control center Spinal Cord Central Nervous System Made up of the brain and spinal cord and coordinates your body’s activities Peripheral NervousSystem Made up of the nerves which carry messages to and from the central nervous system

Brain Cancer

A cancerous or noncancerous mass or growth of abnormal cells in the brain Common

200K to 3M US cases per year.

Symptoms

Headache: can be persistent, severe

Muscular: problems with coordination, weakness of the arms and legs, muscle weakness, or difficulty walking

Sensory: reduced sensation of touch or pins and needles

Speech: difficulty speaking or impaired voice

Cognitive: mental confusion or inability to speak or understand

Whole body: nausea, vertigo, balance disorder, dizziness, or fatigue

Also common: personality change, seizures, vomiting, weakness of one side of the body, blurred vision, or sleepiness

Methotrexate, Bevacizumab by injection, Carmustine by injection, Procarbazine (Matulane), Temozolomide by mouth or by injection (Temodar), Lomustine (Ceenu)

Alzheimers

A progressive disease that destroys memory and other important mental functions Very common

More than 3M US cases per year Cognitive: mental decline, difficulty thinking and understanding, mental confusion, disorientation, delusion, inability to create new memories, inability to recognize common things, inability to do simple math, difficulty concentrating, making things up, confusion in the evening hours, or forgetfulness Donepezil (Aricept), Galantamine (Razadyne), Memantine (Namenda), Rivastigmine through the skin or by mouth (Exelon)

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