APA Formatting & Style Guide - 7th

A Publication of the Trocaire College Libraries

What's on this Guide?

  • Formatting
  • Abstract
  • In-Text Citations
  • In-Text Citations: General Rules for Quoting, Paraphrasing and Summarizing
  • In-Text Citations: More General Rules
  • In-Text Citations: Source Types
  • Reference Page
  • Reference Page: Source Types
  • APA Checklist


The library also has a printed version of this guide with information on planning an outline, plagiarism along with examples. Pick up a copy today!

APA Paper Formatting

Use our template at our Citation Help page. Or you may set up the format yourself.


IMPORTANT: If you want to format your own paper follow these rules:


  • 8.5x 11 in. paper
  • 1 in. margins all around
  • Font: 12-point Times New Roman, 11-point Georgia, 11-point Calibri, 11-point Arial, or 10-point Lucida Sans Unicode. Use the same font throughout the paper
  • The paper is double spaced
  • All pages are numbered. Click Insert, Page Number, Top of Page, Plain Number 3
  • Title page is the cover page. (Page number 1 is in the top right corner)
  • The title page includes the following elements: (hit the return 4 times and center all elements)

    • complete title (bold) hit return 1 time

    • your name

    • department of the course, Trocaire College

    • course number: course name

    • instructor name

    • assignment due date written out. Example: November 14, 2020

  • The body of the paper begins on page 2. The complete title (bold) is centered at the top of the page.

  • The paragraphs are indented throughout the paper (use tab key)

Abstract

You may be asked to include an abstract in your assignment. If your instructor does not require one, you can move to the next section.


  • The abstract appears on page 2. This is a summary of your entire paper. This should include an overview of your topic, the research you conducted and the overall findings you had. The abstract is a paragraph long and contains 150 – 250 words.


  • Keywords are found at the bottom. They are indented (use tab key) and separated by commas. Think of them as the words people would use to search for your article in a database.


  • Format:

    • Abstract (bold) and centered. Hit return 1 time

    • Paragraph of abstract is not indented. Hit return 1 time

    • (indent) Keywords: (italic) 1st keyword, 2nd key word, 3rd keyword, (all lowercase)

In-Text Citations

  • What is an In-Text Citation? It is a reference to a source that you used to either quote, paraphrase or summarize. The citation will lead the reader to more complete information on the Reference Page.


  • If it is not your original idea or experience, you will need to cite it. Citing means that you give credit to the originator of the idea- “give credit where credit is due”. You do not need to cite common knowledge.


  • Citing others’ information strengthens your paper by showing that you are not just copying, but adding to the conversation and making a contribution!


  • In-text citations are inserted into the body of your paper at the point where you introduce the information.


  • An in-text citation for paraphrasing of summarizing consists of an author or title and year if known. According to APA guidelines page numbers or other markers are not required when paraphrasing or summarizing but encouraged.


  • An in-text citation for a quote consists of an author(s), year and page number or other markers.


  • Indirect in-text citations: These are citations when you want to refer to an idea of an author that was published in another author’s text, but you did not read the original work. For example: on page 192 in Smith’s book (which you read) she mentions Miller’s idea. If you want to refer to Miller’s idea do the following:


  1. Quote: “Miller’s quote” (as quoted in Smith, 2016, p. 192).
  2. Paraphrase or Summary: Miller’s idea (as cited in Smith, 2016) or , (as cited in Smith, 2016, p. 192).
  3. On your Reference Page, you will only cite the Smith work.


  • See Purdue OWL’s APA Guide for additional in-text citation information.

In-Text Citations: General Rules for Quoting, Paraphrasing and Summarizing

You can express other people’s ideas in a few different ways: you can quote them, paraphrase their thoughts or summarize their ideas with proper citing.


Quotations– Use them sparingly. Usually you will need to use EXACT (word for word) quotes to:


  1. Define a term or idea
  2. Use a phrase or expression produced by the author
  3. Inform your reader of information that may be difficult to paraphrase, e.g. a theory or medical fact
  4. Illustrate that the quote is just so important or powerful, you couldn’t do it justice


Remember that carefully selected quotes can support your argument, but will not add to the quality of your own work.


Short Quotations:

Quotation marks are mandatory for quotes shorter than 40 words long.


Format: author(s), year and page


There are 2 methods to quote:

Parenthetical: Author(s) mentioned in citation

Narrative: Author(s) mentioned in the sentence.


Examples:

  1. “To some New York is just a city, to a New Yorker it is paradise on Earth” (Collins & Dawin, 2012, p. 11).
  2. As Collins and Dawin (2012) state “To some New York is just a city, to a New Yorker it is paradise on Earth” (p. 11).


Long Quotations:

Long quotations are ones that are more than 40 words long. There are rules for formatting and citing:


  1. The whole quotation is indented .5 inch from the rest of the text and is in block formatting
  2. Spacing is the same as the rest of the paper, double-spaced
  3. There are no quotation marks around the quote
  4. The period at the end of the quote comes before the in-text citation


Example:

Jones' 1993 study found the following:

  • The "placebo effect", which had been verified in previous studies, disappeared when behaviors were studies in this manner. Furthermore, the behaviors were never exhibited again, even when real drugs were administered. Earlier studies were clearly premature in attributing the results to a placebo effect. (pp. 199-200)

** Note the pp. This is to denote multiple pages.



Paraphrasing– A detailed restatement of information in your own words from a source. To paraphrase effectively you need to read the information until you understand the full meaning. Then set the original source aside, think and write, IN YOUR OWN WORDS, what you just read. Make sure your version reflects the meaning of the original. Simply changing a few words, but keeping the same original structure is considered plagiarism. You must truly put the information into your own words!


Summarizing– This is putting only the MAIN IDEAS into your own words. It usually is very short and not as involved as paraphrasing.


Paraphrasing or Summarizing:

Keep the idea of the original thought, but phrase it in a new way.


Format: author(s) and year


IMPORTANT: Page numbers (or other markers) are not required when paraphrasing or summarizing, but APA guidelines encourage it. Some instructors require it, ask your instructor.


There are 2 methods to paraphrasing or summarizing:

Parenthetical: Author(s) mentioned in citation

Narrative: Author(s) mentioned in the sentence.


Examples:

  1. The remix culture is not a new development (Anderson, 2014, p.76).
  2. Edwards, et al. (2007) believed that the freedom to do what you love is not common for most people (p.237). (See below for explanation of "et al.")

In-Text Citations: More General Rules

Multiple authors:

While quoting, paraphrasing or summarizing with more than one author, follow these rules:


2 authors:

Parenthetical: (Smith & Jones, 2020, p.99)

Narrative: Smith and Jones (2020) states….


3 or more authors:

Parenthetical: (Randolph et al., 2019, p.172)

Narrative: Randolph et al. (2019)…explains



No author:

Books or Reports:

Capitalize important words in titles when they are written in the text. Titles are italicized.


Parenthetical: (The Rain is Coming, 2018, p.65)

Narrative: The Rain is Coming (2018)


Articles, Book Chapters and Webpages:

Titles are in quotes.


Parenthetical: (“Diabetes: 10 Things You Need to Know”, 2018)

Narrative: “Diabetes: 10 Things You Need to Know” (2018)… (p. 288).



No page numbers: (usually in electronic sources)

Use markers that are available in the source to help the reader find the information.


  • heading or section name
  • paragraph number (para. 1)
  • table/figure
  • or a combination of these.
  • If none of these are available, use the Author and Year.


Parenthetical: (Klein, 2018, para. 7)

Narrative: According to Friese (2009), ... (section II, para. 4).



No Date: (usually in websites or webpages)

Use n.d. to indicate “no date”.


Parenthetical: (“Diabetes: 10 Things You Need to Know”, n.d.)

Narrative: Grandall (n.d.) argues …. (para. 3).



Author(s) of chapter in a book with editors or an entry in a reference book with editors:

Below in the examples Wainwright and Weaver are the authors of a chapter or article in sources that have editors of the whole source.


Parenthetical: (Wainwright, 2016, p.99)

Narrative: Weaver (2020)….

In-Text Citations: Source Types

Books, eBooks, Journal, Magazine and Newspaper Articles (database/online and print)

Follow the general rules that apply for parenthetical or narrative citations.



Images

Follow the general rules that apply for parenthetical or narrative citations.

The artist or creator is the author of the image.



Websites & Webpages (a webpage is a section of the whole website)

Follow the general rules that apply for parenthetical or narrative citations.

Author information can sometimes be found under “About” section of a website.

The date is the creation or update of the website or webpage, usually found near the bottom of page.



DVD or Streaming Video (college database)

Follow the general rules that apply for parenthetical or narrative citations.

The director or producer is the author and the page number is the time the quote, paraphrasing or summarizing appears.



YouTube or other video found on the Internet

Follow the general rules that apply for parenthetical or narrative citations.

Author may be a screen name and the page number is the time the quote, paraphrasing or summarizing appears.



PowerPoint or Lecture Notes online

Follow the general rules that apply for parenthetical or narrative citations.

Lecture notes are documents from a lecture, either handed out in class or on Moodle, not your personal notes.

Author may be the instructor and use slide number for PowerPoint for page numbers.



Other Sources

Always ask a librarian for assistance if you have other types of sources that are not described in this guide.


Please note: When paraphrasing or summarizing sources that traditionally do not have page numbers, APA guidelines encourage that there is some reference to where the readers of your paper can find the information that you are referencing. Therefore using times, slides, paragraph numbers, sections, tables, etc. enables the reader to find that information. Ask your instructor if this required.

References Page


HINT: Items that were included in an in-text citation will be listed on your Reference Page.


  • The word “References” (without quotes) is placed on the top of the page and centered.


  • The second and subsequent lines of each citation are indented (hanging indent). To achieve hanging indents: highlight the text of the Reference and then click: CTRL/T. (hold down the CTRL key and hit the "T" key)


  • List all of your citations alphabetically by either the author’s last name or the title depending on which is listed first in your reference. Disregard articles (A, An, The) at the beginning of titles. Use the next significant word. For example: The grapes of wrath (book title) would come after a book authored by Jim Ferguson since G comes after F.


  • Authors are listed by Last name, Initials. (if listed).


  • Two authors have "&" between their names


  • All authors, up to 20, must be listed in your citation. List the first 19 followed by "&" and the last author.


  • If 21 or more authors, list the first 19 followed by 3 ellipsis points … then the final author.


  • Write out the full titles of the sources.


  • For books: capitalize the first letter of the first word in the title. If there is a subtitle, capitalize the first letter of the first word. Any proper noun is capitalized. The title is in italics.


  • For periodical titles (journals, magazines and newspapers): use the title as it appears, with capitalization and lowercase. The title is in italics.


  • For article titles: same rule as books. The article title is not in italics.


  • For databases*: include DOI only. If none is listed, no other information is necessary. The DOI is not followed by a period.


  • Complete URLs for websites/webpages must be listed. Include http:// or https://. The URL is not followed by a period.


  • Date format (usually for webpages, websites): For some sources the format is Year, Month (spelled out) Day. Some sources only state year. If no date, use n.d.


*Databases: Most databases have a “Cite” option that can guide you to referencing the source correctly. You can copy and paste the reference into a document. You will need this information when you compose your Reference Page. But it is your job to make sure that the citation is correct.

The hanging indent and double space will not appear in any of these examples due to webpage formatting.

Reference Page: Source Types (follow all general rules that apply)


BOOKS:


Format:

Author’s Last Name, Initials. (Year). Title. Publishing company.


  • If the book has editors, name(s) are followed by (Ed.). or (Eds.).
  • If the book is an edition other than the first, include the edition number after the book title (edition). (2nd ed. or Rev. ed.)
  • If it is a chapter in a book, use “In” and page number


Examples:

Deery, R., Denny, E., & Letherby, G. (2015). Sociology for midwives (5th ed.). Polity Press.


Meiland, J. (2003). The difference between high school and college. In R. K. Durst (Ed.), You are here: Readings on higher education for college writers (pp. 104-114). Prentice Hall.


Smith, J. D., Jones, R. L., & Harper, S. G. (Eds.). (2012). Psychology of the mind. ABC Books.

eBOOKS (college database):


Format:

Author’s Last Name, Initials. (Year). Title. DOI


  • If no DOI is listed and the eBook is from a database, it will have the same format as a printed book.
  • Ask your instructor if they want the database URL if there is no DOI listed.
  • If the book has editors, name(s) are followed by (Ed.). or (Eds.).
  • If the book is an edition other than the first, include the edition number after the book title (edition). (2nd ed. or Rev. ed.)
  • If it is a chapter in a book, use “In” and page number


Examples:

Brown, S. J. (2018). Evidence-based nursing (4th ed.). Jones & Bartlett Learning.


Rowson, B. (2017). Marketing for the hospitality industry. In M.N. Chibili (Ed.), Modern hotel operations management. (pp. 269-298). Routledge. https://doi.org/xxx

JOURNAL, MAGAZINE AND NEWSPAPER ARTICLES (database/online):

  • Ask your instructor if they want the database URL if there is no DOI listed


Format:

Journal: (From a database– DOI only. From a website– URL)


Author’s Last Name, Initials. (Year). Title of article in database. Journal Title, Volume (Issue), pages. DOI or URL

  • Note that the Journal Title and Volume number are in italics.


Magazine or Newspaper:


Author’s Last Name, Initials. (Year, Month Day). Title of magazine article or newspaper article. Magazine or Newspaper Title, pages. URL

  • Note that the Magazine or Newspaper Title is in italics.


Examples:

Journal (database):

Schwartz, A. (2015). In search of after. Cambridge Opera Journal, 27(3), 289-299. http://dx.doi.org.trocaire.idm.oclc.org/10.1017/S0954586715000129


Newspaper (online):

Quenqua, D. (2018, October 30). Deer antlers couldn’t grow so fast without these genes. New York Times, 25. https://www.nytimes.com

JOURNAL, MAGAZINE AND NEWSPAPER ARTICLES (print):

  • Some print journals, magazines and newspapers will list a DOI at the end of the article.


Format:

Journal:


Author’s Last Name, Initials. (Year). Title of article. Journal Title, Volume(Issue), pages. DOI if listed

  • Note that the Journal Title and Volume number are in italics.


Magazine or Newspaper:


Author’s Last Name, Initials. (Year, Month Day). Title of magazine article or newspaper article. Magazine or Newspaper Title, pages. DOI if listed

  • Note that the Magazine or Newspaper Title is in italics.


Examples:

Journal:

Walker, M. (2018). When are sales too good to be true?. CR: Consumer Reports, 83(12), 41-45.


Newspaper:

Pignataro, T.J. (2018, November 11). First lake-effect snows could come this weekend. Buffalo News, C1.

IMAGES

It is important to give as much information as possible about the image. Some websites do give citations and the library’s image database, ImageQuest, gives citation information.


Format:

Artist’s Last Name, Initials. (Year). Title of the image. [format]. Website. URL


No author:

Title of the image. [format]. (Year). Website. URL


Examples:

Website:

Lange, D. (1936). Toll of uncertainty: Destitute pea pickers in California. Mother of seven children. [JPEG im- age]. The History Place. http://

www.historyplace.com/unitedstates/lange/dor12- 100.jpg


Library database: (include DOI, if listed)

Mata Hari. [Photograph]. (n.d.).

WEBSITES and WEBPAGES (section of a website):


Website


Format:


Author’s Last Name, Initials. (Year, Month Day). Title of website. URL of website

  • Note that the Title of website is in italics.


No author:

Title of website. (Year, Month Day). URL of website

  • Note that the Title of website is in italics.


Example:

Mayo Clinic. (2016, June 6). https://www.mayoclinic.org



Webpage


Format:


Author’s Last Name, Initials. (Year, Month Day). Title of page within website. Title of website. Webpage URL

  • Note that the Title of page within website is in italics.


no individual author on an organization page:

Name of organization. (Year, Month Day). Title of page within website. Webpage URL

  • Note that the Title of page within website is in italics.


Example:

Mayo Clinic. (2018, August 8). Diabetes. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/diabetes/symptoms-causes/syc-20371444

DVDs:


Format:


Director’s Last Name, Initials. (Director). (Year of release). Title of movie [DVD]. Production Studio.

  • Note that the Title of movie is in italics.


Example:

Wright, J. (Director). (2009). Pride & Prejudice [DVD]. Universal Studio Home Entertainment.

STREAMING VIDEOS (college databases):

  • Ask your instructor if they want the database URL listed in the reference.


Format:


Director’s Last Name, Initials. (Director). (Year). Title of movie [Film]. Production Studio.

  • Notes that the Title of the movie is in italics.


Example:

Lester, R. (Director). (1964). A Hard Day's Night [Film]. United Artists.

YOUTUBE or Other video found on the Internet:


Format:


Author’s Last Name, Initials. [screen name, if known or name of account that uploaded the video]. (Year, Month Day uploaded). Title of video [Video]. Title of site. URL


  • Note that the Title of the video is in italics.


Examples:

Project Information Literacy. [Project InfoLit]. (2013, November 13). The Freshman Studies [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BWNGZUa952A&feature=youtu.be


Zayid, M. (2013). I got 99 problems...palsy is just one. [Video]. TED. https://www.ted.com/talks/maysoon_zayid_i_got_99_problems_palsy_is _just_one

POWERPOINT or LECTURE NOTES (online or handouts):

  • Lecture notes are documents from a lecture, either handed out in class or on Moodle, not your personal notes.


Format:


Author’s Last Name, Initials. {may be the instructor}(Year, Month Day). Title of PowerPoint or Lecture Notes [PowerPoint slides or lecture notes]. URL


  • Note that the Title of the PowerPoint or Lecture notes are in italics.



Examples:

From the Internet:

Oakleaf, M.J. (2012, June). A multi-institution study of rubric assessment: lessons lived & learned [ PowerPoint slides]. http://meganoakleaf.info/ railsaalhe2012.pdf


From Moodle:

Baker, S. (2016). Wound care [lecture notes]. http://mrooms.net


Hand-outs in class:

Smith, R. (2016, October 25). Philosophy of the ancient world [lecture notes].

OTHER SOURCES:


Always ask a librarian for assistance if you have other types of sources that are not described in this guide. Or check out Purdue OWL's APA Guide.


APA Checklist

When you are all done with the final draft, follow the steps below BEFORE you SAVE and submit (in print or digitally) your paper to your instructor.


Assignment

  • Did you cite and reference the types and number of sources that are stated in the assignment?
  • Did you follow any special instructions requested from the instructor?


Paper Presentation

  • Did you follow all the steps regarding the paper formatting?


Citations and References

  • Did you properly cite all the quotes, paraphrases and summaries within the paper?
  • Did you reference all the sources that are mentioned in the text of the paper on the Reference Page?


Proofread your paper. Or better, let someone else read it for grammatical mistakes, typos, sentence structure and overall readability. The reader can let you know if you have been successful in making your argument, supporting it, and illustrating it through citing sources and then drawing a conclusion.

For a printed guide with more information, visit the library.


Any questions, ask a librarian!