Types of Mining and Fracking

By Jasmine Pierce and Amela Karahasan

Differences in Mining

Surface and Subsurface are two different things because surface is on top and Subsurface is underneath the surface.

Description, Pictures, and effects on environment.

Effects on the environment from subsurface mining, would be that the water could get polluted by abandoned mines, and for surface mining would be that it destroys habitats, and there is a lot of soil erosion. Description of surface would be that it is a activity where overlying rock is left in place and the minerals are removed through shafts or tunnels. One example would be strip mining, open lift, and mountain top removal. Description for subsurface would be that it it is a form of underground mining that involves digging tunnels in the earth to find minerals. Some examples would be slope, drift, and shaft.


Drilling fluid into the ground. Vertical bores are drilled thousands of feet into the earth through sediment and shale rock formations to reach the oil and gas. Environmental impact it has it that there is a lot of air pollution such as methane, waste disposal, and exposure to toxic chemicals.