The Effect of Gender

on the Hours of Sleep a Student Gets on a School Night

By: Kevin Qian and Deepa Ravindra (Period 2)

Question

Does gender affect the average hours of sleep a high school student above the grade of 9

gets on a school night?

I. B. Hypothesis

If the amount of sleep that 13 boys and 13 girls in highschool above the grade of 9 get on an average night is recorded, then it will show that girls get less sleep.

I. C. Type of Investigation

This is a comparative investigation.

I. D. Parts of the Experiment

1. Dependent Variable: The number of hours slept on an average school night.

2. Independent Variable: The gender of the subject.

3. Control: None.

4. Experimental Group: 13 boys and 13 girls in high school who are in grade 10 and above.

5. Factors Held Constant: The school of the participants (CHS) and the age range (10th-12th graders).

II. Data Table

Big image

III. Bar Graphs

Big image
Big image

IV. Analysis

When surveying 13 boys and 13 girls in high school above the grade of 9 about the number of hours they slept in a day on average, it was found that there was no significant difference. The average number of hours boys slept was 6.8, and the average number of hours that girls slept was 6.5. The 2* standard error of the mean for boys was 1.0, and the 2x standard error of the mean for girls was 0.9. When the 2*SEM for boys is added and subtracted to their mean number of hours of sleep received, there is a range of 5.8 to 7.8 through the calculations 6.8+1=7.8 and 6.8-1=5.8. When the 2*SEM for girls is added and subtracted to their mean number of hours of sleep received, we get a range of 5.6 to 7.4 through the calculations 6.5-0.=5.6 and 6.5+0.9=7.4. There is significant overlap between the boy's mean with the 2*SEM added and subtracted (5.8 to 7.8) and the girl's mean with the 2*SEM added and subtracted (5.6 to 7.4), indicating that there is not a significant difference. When a t-test was applied to the data sets recording the average number of hours slept for both male and female individuals, the p-value obtained was 0.31. This was well above the 95% certainty criteria of 0.05 required to prove statistical significance, meaning that the t-test's results indicated that the difference in hours slept between boys and girls was not statistically significant. Scientists at the University of Amsterdam conducted an experiment about the effect of gender on sleep duration of adolescents (Kaufmann, Meijer, Kerkhof, Bögels). Through their meta-analytic review, it was deduced that despite controversial results about sleep duration and gender, it was statistically proven that there was no significant difference (Kaufmann, Meijer, Kerkhof, Bögels). Slight, statistically insignificant differences are caused by differences in the age groups of the adolescents in the experiment (John). In addition, other reasons of the differences in the amount of sleep gotten can be due to puberty changes, school timings, and workload, whether it be academic or extracirricular (Kaufmann, Meijer, Kerkhof, Bögels). Adolescence brings many psychological and physical changes in a teen, which account for the differences shown in the data, but vary between each individual, which produces inconclusive results and an insignificant difference (Moore, Kirchner, Drotar, Johnson, Rosen, Redline). It has been observed through various studies that girls tend to wake up earlier on weekdays, due to early morning routines and catch up on their sleep during the weekend, whereas boys tend to have, approximately, the same sleep patterns throughout the week (Moore, Kirchner, Drotar, Johnson, Rosen, Redline). This observation could be a reason as to why the mean of the girls subjects hours of sleep was 0.3 hours less than the boys. However, despite the many experiments done by various scientists, the gender differences show various results: one study showed that girls get less sleep than boys, another showed boys receive less sleep, and another showed that girls had a longer sleep duration due to preferances (Moore, Kirchner, Drotar, Johnson, Rosen, Redline). This sums up to show that since the results are so very inconclusive, changing, and not at a specific conclusion, gender does not have a significant difference on sleep patterns (Moore, Kirchner, Drotar, Johnson, Rosen, Redline).

V. Conclusion

It was found that there was no significant difference in the number of hours that 13 high school boys and 13 high school girls in 10th grade or above slept on average in a day. This did not support the hypothesis that, on average, girls would get less sleep on average in a day. The purpose of the experiment was to determine what difference gender would make on the amount of sleep a high school individual had; the purpose of the experiment was achieved.

VI. Sources of Inaccuracies/Errors

A possible source of inaccurate results was the fact that the experiment did not require the subjects to accurately record and average the amount of sleep they had every day. Instead, they were simply told to guess how much they slept. Because the experiment relied on the test subjects' own estimates, the numbers were not likely to be very precise. In addition, our sample size was not very large. A smaller sample size is prone to more inaccuracies.

VII. Bibliography

Works Cited


John, Bindu. "Sleep-patterns, Sleep Hygiene Behaviors and Parental Monitoring among Bahrain-based Indian Adolescents." Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care. Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd, n.d. Web. 06 Sept. 2015.


Kaufmann, Julia, Anne Meijer, Gerard Kerkhof, and Susan Bögels. "Dewald JF, Meijer AM, Oort FJ, Et Al. The Influence of Sleep Quality, Sleep Duration and Sleepiness on School Performance in Children and Adolescents: A Meta-analytic Review." Research Gate (n.d.): n. pag. Print.


Moore, Melisa, H. Lester Kirchner, Dennis Drotar, Nathan Johnson, Carol Rosen, and Susan Redline. "CORRELATES OF ADOLESCENT SLEEP TIME AND VARIABILITY IN SLEEP TIME: THE ROLE OF INDIVIDUAL AND HEALTH RELATED CHARACTERISTICS." Sleep Medicine. U.S. National Library of Medicine, n.d. Web. 06 Sept. 2015.


Conclusion. Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web. 7 Sept. 2015. <https://psisminiprojectae501.files.wordpress.com/2015/05/conclusion.jpg>.


Teen Sleeping. Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Sept. 2015. <http://learnenglishteens.britishcouncil.org/sites/teens/files/styles/article/public/field/image/istock_000001739813small.jpg?itok=j_5In7t1>.


Gender Differences. Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Sept. 2015. <http://elisabettasavinyals.cat/wp-content/uploads/Gender-Roles.jpg>.