The Revolutionary Era

By: Alice Wei

Causes of the American Revolution

It first started with the French and Indian War. The France and Native Americans were fighting against England and The Colonies. They were fighting to expand into the Ohio River Valley. The British ended up winning and Treaty of Paris of 1763 ended the French and Indian War. Many Americans moved to the British territory to get a fresh start. When they moved, they weren't having the freedom they thought they would have. Instead, there limitations were becoming smaller and smaller.
The Proclamation of 1763 was a law that banned settlement West of the Appalachian Mountains. It also ordered settlers to leave the upper Ohio River Valley. Many American colonists began to question British policies and they also angered many colonists.
The Sugar Act of 1764 taxed molasses and sugar imported by colonists to help pay for the army. This was the first act passed specifically to raise money in the colonies. "No Taxation without Representation," was the slogan created to protest British taxes. This means that Parliament couldn't tax the colonists without their permission. Samuel Adams was the local leader of the Boston town meeting who he created the slogan with Otis.
The Quartering Act of 1765 required colonists to house British soldiers. These laws only made Britain angrier.
Stamp Act of 1765 required colonists to pay for an official stamp or seal, when they bought paper items. The Sons of Liberty was a secret society group formed by the colonists. They protested British taxes by sometimes using violence to make tax collectors scared. Patrick Henry's role in protesting was that he provided many resolutions to the Virginia House of Burgesses. Patrick's resolutions stated that the Stamp Act was hurting the colonists rights. The Parliament responded to the colonies protests by making a Declaratory Act which stated parliament had the power to make laws for the colonies. Colonists were nervous about this because it took away a lot of there independence.
The Townshend Acts of 1767 placed taxes on glass, paint, paper, lead, and tea. The "writs of assistance" allowed tax collectors search for stolen goods. This allowed tax collectors to still earn money when colonists stole goods. The colonists reacted by boycotting any British goods. The Daughters of Liberty was a group of women that supported the boycott.
The Boston Massacre of 1770 was a small fight between the British troops and the Bostonians in which the massacre ended up killing many people. This started when the British troops were sent to Boston because of all the new laws and acts, they had to make sure they were actually being followed. Crispus Attuck was considered the first killed in the American Revolution. The Boston Sons of Liberty used propaganda to respond to the masacre by quickly spreading the story of the shooting around. The story had only one side of the argunment, against the British. Two Boston lawyers, Josiah Quincy and John Adams all defended the British troops at the trial. Parliament responded by reducing tension with taking away almost all of the Townshend Act.
The Tea Act of 1773 allowed British East India Company to sell tea directly to the colonists. Colonists responded by the Sons of LIberty demanding the the ships to leave. Although the governor wouldnt leave without paying there duty. So, the captian waited in the harbor.
The Boston Tea Party was when colonists disguised themselves as Indians, sneaked into the ships full of tea, and dumped 340 chests of tea into the Boston Harbor.

Coercive/ Intolerable Acts of 1774 was a punishment for Boston in result of the Boston Tea Party. Parliament passed the Coercive/ Intolerable Acts to punish Boston. The effects made Boston Harbor closed until they repaid for the lost tea, the Massachusett's charter was canceled, royal officials accused of crimes were sent to Britain for trial, there were new Acts including the Quebec Act and the Quatering Act, and General Thomas Gage became governor of Massachusetts. The British hoped that this would bring back order to the colonies, instead the colonists reacted by being even more angrier in Britain.

That were all the causes that led up to the American Revolution.

Lexington and Concord

It was dawn on April 19 where 70 armed minuteman waited for the British troops to arrive at the town of Lexington. John Parker yelled to his troops "Don't fire unless fired upon." After that, a gun was pulled and that first shot was now called, "shot heard 'round the world." The battle was very short with 8 dead and 10 wounded from the minuteman and only one wounded from the British. The British then marched up to Concord. The citizens of Concord were warned by a rider named Samuel Prescott. Most of the weapons were in hiding which frustrated British troops because they thought the stockpile had disappeared. Unfortunately, they started a fire to a few buildings. The British soldiers made an easy target because they were wearing redcoats. The British were forced to retreat to Boston, suffering along the way.

Common Sense

Common Sense is a 47 page pamphlet that was distributed in Philadelphia in January 1776. The author's name is Thomas Paine. He argued about how citizens should make the laws, not the kings and queens. At the time when monarchs ruled most if the world, this seemed like a bold idea. News of the work spread and eventually sold 500,000 copies. Paine reached a wide audience by writing as a common person speaking to common people. Common Sense changed the way many colonists viewed there king by, making a strong case for economic freedom, the right of military self defense, and it was against tyranny. Thomas Paine's words were thought about during the American Revolution.
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Declaration of Independence

  • In June 1776 the Sencond Continental Congress began writing a document declaring independence.
  • The Declaraition of Independence formally announced the colonies' break from Great Britian.
  • Thomas Jefferson, the document's main author, argued that all people had rights that are a natural part of being born and connot be taken away.
  • Jefferson listed the complaibts of the colonists He assterted that KIng GEorge the 3rd had violated the colonists' rights by taxing without here consent.
  • Jefferson accused the king of passing unfair laws laws and interfering with colonial government.

Battle of Saratoga, spring of 1777

  • The British general John Burgoyn decided to push through New York State and cu off New England from the other colonies.
  • The Battle was a turning point of the Revolutionary War.
  • Burgoyne took Ticonderga in early July and headed toward Albany.
  • Howe captured Philadelphia where he left New York and sailed up the Chesapeake Bay.
  • The battle was the greatest victory for the American forces.

Winter at Valley Forge

  • The Continental Army was was running low on food and clothing during the Winter at Valley Forge.
  • In December of 1777, Washington settled his 12,000 men north of Philadelphia
  • There was no enemy, but yet the enemy was the cold and hard conditions of the winter of 1777 to 1778.
  • Soldiers had small shelters, some had no shirts, and some had no shoes.
  • During the winter, 2000 soldiers died of disease.
  • Marquis decLafayette role was that he was the French general and political leader who supported the American Revolution. The Continental Congress appointed him as a major general in 1777, before France had officially entered into alliance with the United States.

Battle of Yorktown, 1781

  • In the early 1781, the war was going badly for the Patriots. They were low on money and supplies.
  • The Patriots' morale took another blow when Benedict Arnold, one of America's most gifted officers, turned traitor.
  • Regrouped under Nathanael Greene, the Continental Army began harrasing British general Charles Cornwallis in the Carolinas.
  • The Patriots system of spies kept Washington and Lafayette informed of British plans.
  • the battle was the last major battle of the American Revolution.

Treaty of Paris, 1783

  • Lacking the money to pay for a new army, Great Britain entered into peace talks with America.
  • It took two years to come to a peace agreement.
  • The Treaty of Paris of 1783, Great Britain recognized the independence of the United States.
  • British leaders also accepted American rights to settle and trade west of the original thirteen colonies.
  • The Revolution had begun in 1774 with the meeting of the First Continental Congress, which the revolution was finally over.