Types of Mining and Fracking


Surface and Subsurface Mining

The difference between surface and subsurface mining is that during the process of surface mining, miners move aside debris and unnecessary materials to get to the good stuff (the minerals and whatever). During the process of subsurface mining the miners drill into the ground and use machines to extract the resources instead.

Types of Surface Mining

Strip Mining ~ When miners remove a layer of the Earth and then harvest the exposed layer of minerals and such. Effects it can have on the environment is major erosion, and it can reduced soil's fertility, pollute water or underground drains, and destroy wildlife.

Open Pit Mining ~ Basically a hole where people go inside and mine throughout the inside walls. Essentially the same effects as strip mining.

Mountain Top Removal Mining ~ The top of a mountain is removed and the seams of coal inside are revealed. It affects the environment by using blasts to remove the mountain tops that can devastate communities near by.

Types of Subsurface Mining

Slope ~ A mine shaft that downward towards the desired material but the main focus is that it's on an incline. Effects on the environment would be deforestation and lack of biodiversity.

Drift Mining ~ Very similar to slope mining but the shaft that runs down into the earth is on a horizontal plane, cutting into the side of the earth instead of straight down. Effects on the environment are the same.

Shaft Mining ~ A vertical passageway used to access an underground mine, differs from slope as it is straight down and not on an incline and is meant for people to walk inside and whatever.

What is fracking?

Fracking is the process of digging down into the earth and shooting high pressured water into it to break rock and allow gas to escape.