ancient mayans and medvieal times
Roles in Women and Men in Anicent Mayans
Death in ancient mayans
ancient mayans hiecharchy
Around 300 B.C., the Maya adopted a hierarchical system of government with rule by nobles and kings. This civilization developed into highly structured kingdoms during the Classic period, A.D. 200-900. Their society consisted of many independent states, each with a rural farming community and large urban sites built around ceremonial centres. It started to decline around A.D. 900 when - for reasons which are still largely a mystery - the southern Maya abandoned their cities. When the northern Maya were integrated into the Toltec society by A.D. 1200, the Maya dynasty finally came to a close, although some peripheral centres continued to thrive until the Spanish Conquest in the early sixteenth century.
Maya history can be characterized as cycles of rise and fall: city-states rose in prominence and fell into decline, only to be replaced by others. It could also be described as one of continuity and change, guided by a religion that remains the foundation of their culture. For those who follow the ancient Maya traditions, the belief in the influence of the cosmos on human lives and the necessity of paying homage to the gods through rituals continues to find expression in a modern hybrid Christian-Maya faith.
Ancient Mayans women clothing
Ancient mayans men clothing
The clothing the the Mayan men wore consisted of cotton breechclout and
sandalsMen also wear tzute, decorated with embroidery and worn over the shoulder. Men also wear hats, especially for ceremonial events, which vary by region. Some are straw hats decorated by ribbons or pompons. Men do not wear jewelry, but they carry a bag called a morral
Ancient Mayas houses
Ancient Mayas invetions
Ancient mayas battles
Mediveal times hiechary
King - The top leader in the land was the king. The king could not control all of the land by himself, so he divided it up among the Barons. In return, the Barons pledged their loyalty and soldiers to the king. When a king died, his firstborn son would inherit the throne. When one family stayed in power for a long time, this was called a dynasty.
Bishop - The Bishop was the top church leader in the kingdom and managed an area called a diocese. The Catholic Church was very powerful in most parts of Medieval Europe and this made the Bishop powerful as well. Not only that, but the church received a tithe of 10 percent from all the people. This made some Bishops very rich.
Baron - Barons ruled large areas of land called fiefs. They reported directly to the king and were very powerful. They divided up their land among Lords who ran individual manors. Their job was to maintain an army that was at the king's service. If they did not have an army, sometimes they would pay the king a tax instead. This tax was called shield money.
Lord - The lords ran the local manors. They also were the knights and could be called into battle at any moment by their Baron. The lords owned everything on their land including the peasants, crops, and village.
Peasants or Serfs
Most of the people living in the Middle Ages were peasants. They had a hard rough life. Some peasants were considered free and could own their own businesses like carpenters, bakers, and blacksmiths. Others were more like slaves. They owned nothing and were pledged to their local lord. They worked long days, 6 days a week, and often barely had enough food to survive
medvieal times roles of women and men
Within a village, women would have done many of the tasks men did on the land. However, they were paid less for doing the same job. Documents from Medieval England relating to what the common person did are rare, but some do exist which examine what villages did. For reaping, a man could get 8 pence a day. For the same task, women would get 5 pence. For hay making, men would earn 6 pence a day while women got 4 pence. In a male dominated society, no woman would openly complain about this disparity.
About 90% of all women lived in rural areas and were therefore involved in some form of farm work.
In medieval towns, women would have found it difficult to advance into a trade as medieval guilds frequently barred women from joining them. Therefore, a skilled job as recognised by a guild was usually out of reach for any woman living in a town. Within towns, women were usually allowed to do work that involved some form of clothes making but little else. A person's life was also highly dependent on his parents' lives, because wealth and income had a significant influence on people's lives. Medieval Europe was largely divided between the haves and the have-nots; namely, those of noble birth and those of peasant birth.
Mediveal times death
The Black Death's origins were from Asia, where it decimated the population there as well, and was brought to Western Europe along trading routes, first arriving in Sicily in 1347. This disease was spread primarily through rats and fleas.
The disease attacked lymph, respiratory and/or circulatory systems and there was nearly a 100% mortality rate for those infected. The Church's stranglehold on society left many feeling that this was a plague from God, and that doctors would be of little use. A chilling rhyme would evolve from the symptoms of the dying and sentiments of the living…
"Ring around the rosie,
A pocketful of posie,
All fall down."
Attempts to avoid the disease ranged from constant supplication to God, to eating fine meats, drinking fine wines, and filling the mind with thought of anything, other than death. Doctors tried to treat victims with everything from valerian root and moonwort, to arsenic and brimstone.
The Black Death had a steamroller effect throughout all society. Multitudes of houses and barns infested with rats were left vacant, making it impossible to collect rents. Unused mills fell into disrepair, making it impossible to grind wheat for flour in some areas. There was a resurgence of the disease later in the century, but not as many people were infected. mingled with fear concerning death and the afterlife, providing stirring subjects for manuscript illumination. Depictions of souls in paradise, the rewards of the blessed, and God's mercy reassured Christian audiences, while sometimes horrific illustrations of funerals, demons, and the punishment of the wicked prompted the pious to repent for their sins. At the core of visual devotion stood images of the crucified Christ, promising resurrection and eternal salvation.
This exhibition—which includes not only manuscripts but also printed books, a panel painting, stained glass and other media—explores medieval images that reflect imagined travels to the netherworld and attempts to map what awaited humankind beyond this earthly existence.
In Denise Poncher before a Vision of Death, the young owner of the manuscript is shown kneeling with her prayer book before a terrifying spectacle: the walking corpse of Death and three of his victims. The image likely served to remind the viewer that Death could arrive at any time and that prayer could prepare one's soul.
mediveal times women clothing
mediveal times men clothing
'Over the period of the high Middle Ages, styles of clothing of nobles and townspeople changed from long, loose garments for both men and women to short, tight, full-skirted jackets and close-fitting hosse for men and trailing gowns with voluuminous sleeves, elabroate headdresses, and pointed shoes for women.
Peasant dress, howver, progressed little. For the men, it consisted of a short tunic, belted at the waist, and either short stockings that ended just below the knee or long hose fastened at the waist to a cloth belt. A hood or cloth cap, thick gloves or mittens, and leather shoes with heavy wooden soless completed the costume. The tunic of a poor peasant man might be trimmed with fur, like squirrel. '
Popular colours included blue, red, and green, produced by vegetable dyes
In 'Life in a Medieval City' discussing the 13th century, Frances and Joseph Giess write:
'A burgher and his wife wear linen and wool in bright reds, greens, blues and yellows, trimmed and lined with fur. Though the garments are similiar, differentation is taking place. A century ago both sexes wre long, loose-fitting tunics and robes that were almost identical. Now men's clothes are shorer and tighter than women's, and a man wears an invention of the Middle Ages that has already become a byword for masculinity, trousers, in the form of hose, a tight-fitting combination of breeches and stockings. Over them he wears a long-sleeved tunic, whch may be lined with fur, then a sleeeveless belted surcoat of fine wool, sometimes with a hood. For outdoors, he wears a mantle fasstened at the shouolder with a clasp or cahin; although bottons are sometimes used for decoration, the buttonhole has not been invented (it will be by the end of the century). His clothes have no pockets, and he must carry money and other belongings in a pouch or purse slung from his belt, or in his sleeves. On his feet are boots with high tops of soft leather.'
In 'Pleasuress and Pastimes in Medieval England' Compton Reeves writes:
'In the first quarter of the fourteenth century,utility seems to have been the major determining factor in clothing, with distinctions being primarily in the quality of fabric. A noble gentleman wore velvet and fur, and his gowns tended to be voluminous. In the fourteenth century robess of voluminous character were gradually abandoned by most men, but were preserved in the distinguished dress of lawyers, academics, or the forma attire of the king. Men often wore a coif, aclose-fitting bonnet tied under the chin, which covered the hair (which often reached the shoulders) and ears, and over this ahat was worn.
The hood worn by men underwent many changes in style in the later Middle Ages. it began *** a simple cowl with a point at the back, pulled out over the head with sufficient cloth toform a gorget to protect the neck and shoulders. Then the point of the hood was elongated with a pipe of material called a liripipe, that sometimes was an appendage of considerable length. In some styles, the liripipe was wound round the head and the gorget perched atop the head like a cockscomb. All sorts of creative draping evolved from the simple cowl in the course of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries.
In the second quarter of the fourteenth century the clothing of stylish men and women assumed a more figure-fitting cut and shape than had been the rule earlier. The clinging lines were often managed by lacing the garments down the back from neck to waist. The tight-fitting tunic, or cote-hardie, was worn by both sexes of the upper classes. The cote-hardie buttoned down the front and might reach mid-way down the thigh, perhaps further, and under it men would wear a gipon or doublet, which also fitted closely, and beneath that an undergarment. A man's shoes had pointed toes of ever increasing length, and the shoes were either buttone dup the front or buckled over the instep.'
mediveal times houses
Many peasant families ate, slept, and spent time together in very small quarters, rarely more than one or two rooms. The houses had thatched roofs and were easily destroyed
Medieval Manor Houses
Medieval manor houses were owned by Medieval England's wealthy - those who were at or near the top of the feudal system. Few original Medieval manor houses still exist as many manor houses were built onto over the next centuries. For this reason, you have to look at Tudor and Stuart manors to find where Medieval architecture existed and where it was 'improved'.
Medieval peasants lived in wattle and daub huts. The poverty of such dwellings was a sign as to where these people were on the social scale and their standing in the feudal system. No lord would have lived in such circumstances. Manors were built of natural stone and they were built to last. Their very size was an indication of a lord's wealth. By Tudor and Stuart standards, Medieval manors were reasonably small. By the standards of Medieval England, they were probably the largest buildings seen by peasants outside of castles and cathedrals. Such an example can be seen at Penshurst Place in Kent.
The original medieval manor at Penshurst has been effectively swamped by later additions and changes. However, the essentials are still clearly visible..
mediveal times invetions
As the tide comes in, it enters the mill pond through a one way gate, and this gate closes automatically when the tide begins to fall. When the tide is low enough, the stored water can be released to turn a water wheel.
The earliest excavated tide mill, dating from 787, is the Nendrum Monastery mill on an island in Strangford Lough in Northern Ireland. Its millstones are 830mm in diameter and the horizontal wheel is estimated to have developed 7/8HP at its peak.
Remains of an earlier mill dated at 619 were also found.
In the basic mouldboard plough the depth of the cut is adjusted by lifting against the runner in the furrow, which limited the weight of the plough to what the ploughman could easily lift.
These ploughs were fairly fragile, and were unsuitable for breaking up the heavier soils of northern Europe. The introduction of wheels to replace the runner allowed the weight of the plough to increase, and in turn allowed the use of a much larger mouldboard that was faced with metal.
These heavy ploughs led to greater food production and eventually a significant population increase around 600 AD.
The plough was a pretty major breakthrough in the history of humankind and allowed people to grow crops in soils too hard for hand digging and to greatly expand their fields. Early ploughs were, more or less, a pointy stick dragged behind a draft animal, cutting lightly through the soil. A farmer would walk along with the plough and lift the plough blade so that it didn't get caught on rocks or roots. These ploughs were fine for lighter soils but had trouble in harder soils.
Enter the heavy plough, which uses wheels to support a heavier plough blade. The exact place and time of the first use of the heavy plough are not inconvertible known, but it's safe to peg its introduction to somewhere in Asia around 200 A.D. The Romans were rocking the heavy plough not too long after that, and by roughly 600 AD, the rest of Europe was on board. Farmers were able to open up extensive new fields thanks to the heavy plough, boosting crop yields and population numbers (aka all of our distant relatives).