Chemistry of Life

Taylor Diffin and Dontae DeShields

Water

water has a covalent bond. the formula for water is H2O. Other water molecules join together with a hydrogen bond. Water has adhesion and cohesion, adhesion is an attraction between different substances. Cohesion is an attraction between substances of the same kind. The polarity of water enables many substances to dissolve in water.ions are attracted to the ends of water molecules with the opposite charge. Water absorbs heat more slowly and retains tis energy longer than many other substances do. Many organisms release excess heat through water evaporation. In organisms, this ability to control temperature enables cells to maintain a constant internal temperature . The PH scale is based on the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution.

Macromolecules

Macromolecules are very large molecules that are commonly created by polymerization of smaller subunits. Types of macromolecules are lipids, proteins, carbohydrates and nucleic acids.


Carbohydartes

the types of carbohydrates are mono-saccharides, di-saccharides, oligo-saccharides,polly-saccharides. The function of mono-saccharides is that basic source of energy of cells, Mono=1, Sacch=sweet, sugar. the function of di-saccharides is energ. the function of oligo-saccharides is celluar sign post and "indentifies cell type". The function of polly-saccharides is plant structure, energy and bug covering. Examples of mono-saccharides are fructose and glucose. The examples of di-saccharides are lactose=milk and sucrose=table sugar. there are no of oligo-saccharides. Examples of polly-saccharides are starches, cellulose and chitin.


proteins

Proteins has many different types and functions. Examples of proteins are hemoglobin, collogen and t-protein. Some functions are hemoglobin carries oxygen through the blood. Antibodies help protect your body against forien invaders.


Lipids

Lipids is another word for fats. The purpose is to make up cell membranes and long term energy. ex.- saturated fats, unsaturated fats, and polysaturated fats.


Nucleic Acids

The types of nucleic acids are DNA, RNA, and ATP. The function of DNA heredity, The function of RNA is helping make proteins, and the function of ATP is energy. DNA, RNA and ATP are examples of nucleic acids.


Enzymes

The type of macromolecule is protein. It changes its shape to fit the substrate. The function of enzymes is to act as a catalyst by increasing the rates of chemical reactions. The activation energy of enzymes is to break chemical bonds and begin the reaction. Examples of enzymes are amylase. H affects enzyme activity because of the concentration of hydrogen ions in solution.