FROM PURITANISM TO THE ENLIGHTMENT

SEVENTEENTH AND EIGHTEENTH CENTURY ENGLAND

A TIME OF RELIGIOUS UPHEAVAL (Anglicans vs. Catholics vs. Puritans)

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OVERVIEW: English Royalty after the Tudors

THE STUART DYNASTY

King James I(1603-1625)

Son of Mary Queen of Scots

Had become Scottish King at 13 months

Tried hard to become "English"

Upheld "Divine Right of Kings"

Commissioned the Bible ( King James Version)

Weak king and suspected homosexual

Suspected secretly of being Catholic

King Charles I(1625-1649)

Son of James I

Height – only 5’3”

Older brother had died at age 18

Married French Catholic Henrietta Maria

Dissolved Parliament

Beheaded in 1649

Civil war started in 1642, ended in king’s execution for treason

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CIVIL WAR BETWEEN THE ANGLICANS AND THE PURITANS (1642-49)

Royalist Cavaliers VS. Puritan Roundheads

Long-haired Hippies vs. Bald Fanatics

Religious Conflicts:

1.Catholics were prohibited from open practice – left for continent

2. Puritans and other Protestants – left for Holland, then North America


Tension eventually grew and resulted in an English Civil War between supporters of the King and the Anglican Church VS. supporters of Oliver Cromwell and the Puritan Church.

War ended with the king's beheading, his young son (Prince) escaping to France, and Oliver Cromwell as ruler of England.


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Execution of King Charles II

Cromwell and the Puritans won, tried Charles as a “tyrant, traitor, and murderer.”

Executed King in 1649

Some dipped handkerchiefs in King’s blood as souvenirs.

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Puritan Commonwealth (1649-1660)

PURITAN COMMONWEALTH

Only time England has not had a sitting king or queen

Military victory led by Oliver Cromwell:

Controversial figure

Military leader

Responsible for attempting Catholic genocide in Ireland

Generally, hated by the Irish

After Restoration, corpse dug up, beheaded, and put in commoners’ pit

LIFE IN PURITAN COMMONWEALTH

closed all theatres

2. banned dancing and music

3. destroyed all religious icons “graven images”

4. forbade celebration of Christmas

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RESTORATION OF THE MONARCHY

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THE RESTORATION: Return of King Charles II (1660-1685) PARTY TIME!!!

Son of Charles I

Went into exile to France as a young boy

Lived for time at Versailles

Wavered between Catholicism and Anglicanism

Invited back to “restore” the monarchy after Commonwealth fell

Reopened theaters and dance halls

Reestablished Christmas as a holiday

Had 12 illegitimate children by 7 mistresses

No legitimate heirs

Rumor – deathbed conversion to Catholicism

Horrible Histories Charles II: King of Bling" rap Song

RESTORATION

Started intellectual movement that set the stage for the “Enlightenment” or “the Age of Reason” that took hold in the 1800's

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MAJOR DISASTERS OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY

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Plague of 1665

Hot summers of 1664,65 and squalid conditions intensified plague

Rubbish, including human waste, thrown on streets

Plague was caused by disease-carrying fleas carried on bodies of rats

Fire of 1666 may have helped eradicate the plague

Christmas Message from Charles II
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Great Fire of 1666

1. started on September 2, 1666

2. started in a London bakery on Pudding Lane

3. 0nly 5 deaths recorded

4. fire spread slowly over 4 days, from Sunday to Wednesday

5. Destroyed Medieval city within the old Roman city wall

6. Destroyed 13,200 houses and St. Paul’s Cathedral

7. Blamed on Catholics and foreigners

8. City was rebuilt to become Europe’s largest by 1750.


The Great Fire's Great Column - a History of the Great Fire of London
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King James II AND THE GLORIOUS REVOLUTION(1685-89)

Brother of Charles II

Openly Catholic

Had mistresses

Expelled, Fled to France – called the “Glorious Revolution” (bloodless coup)

Last Catholic “Stuart” king

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William and Mary (1689-1702)

Mary- James’s Protestant daughter and her Dutch husband

Wanted to ensure a Protestant monarch

Mary died in 1694, but William of Orange continued to rule until his death in 1702.

Their rule was the only time England has had "joint sovereigns."

Queen Anne (1702-1714)

Mary's younger sister ( no children , no Catholics)

In 1707, England and Scotland officially became GREAT BRITAIN

Despite 17 pregnncies with her husband Prince George of Denmark, she had no children.

She was succeeded by her cousin.

THE END OF THE STUARTS

THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY ( THE AGE OF REASON)

THE ENLIGHTENMENT

1. British press and freedom of thought and expression became less restricted.

2. Thinkers helped to shape ideals of American and other revolutions.

3. Ideas of the scientific revolution laid foundation of modern world view based on rationalism and secularism.

4. Widespread use of the scientific method was crucial to development of modern science.

5. Intellectuals advocated the rights of the individual, paving way for the rise of world democracies.

HANOVER DYNASTY OF THE 1700'S: The Age of the Georges (OH MY!)

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King George I (1714- 1727)

a second cousin of Queen Anne

his mother was James I's granddaughter (thus a descendant of the Stuarts)

became king at age 54

married his first cousin, Sophie

Had 1 son and 1 daughter

both king and queen had affairs

George had Sophie's lover murdered and imprisoned her in a tower

Had children with his mistress

Never spoke English well

Considered uncouth by the English, who dd not understand him and considered him "too German"

Wanted his son to choose his wife, unlike him

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King George II (1727-1760)

Son of George I

Last king born in Germany

Had mistresses and illegitimate children too

Had problems with his father and with his son Frederick who died unexpectedly

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KING GEORGE III (1760-1801)

Frederick's son; became king when he was 22 years old

Did not speak German as a first language; had never visited Hanover

Was not mentally competent ; labelled "Mad"- had recurrent bouts of mental illness

Movie- The Madness of King George

Lost the colonies

Married Princess Charlotte; never had a mistress, unlike his father and his sons

Had 15 children

King George III was mad
Horrible Histories Gorgeous Georgians George III's doctors Ready Steady Feast
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KING GEORGE IV (1801-1830)

Forced to marry his first cousin- had 1 daughter who died before the king did

Had affair with a married woman (Mrs. Fitzherbert, a Catholic) throughout his reign

Had several illegitimate children with many mistresses

Both he and his wife had affairs.

Had extravagant lifestyle; a party animal

Became king at 57, obese and addicted to laudanum

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KING WILLIAM IV (1830-1837)

Brother of George IV; HIs name was William Henry

Had 2 legitimate daughters, but both died in infancy

Had 10 out of wedlock children

THE LAST HANOVER KING


When he died, his neice Victoria became Queen: She started the "Victorian Era."

END OF THE HANOVER MEN DYNASTY - THE AGE OF VICTORIA BEGINS