FROM PURITANISM TO THE ENLIGHTMENT
SEVENTEENTH AND EIGHTEENTH CENTURY ENGLAND
A TIME OF RELIGIOUS UPHEAVAL (Anglicans vs. Catholics vs. Puritans)
OVERVIEW: English Royalty after the Tudors
THE STUART DYNASTY
King Charles I(1625-1649)
Son of James I
Height – only 5’3”
Older brother had died at age 18
Married French Catholic Henrietta Maria
Beheaded in 1649
Civil war started in 1642, ended in king’s execution for treason
CIVIL WAR BETWEEN THE ANGLICANS AND THE PURITANS (1642-49)
Royalist Cavaliers VS. Puritan Roundheads
1.Catholics were prohibited from open practice – left for continent
2. Puritans and other Protestants – left for Holland, then North America
Tension eventually grew and resulted in an English Civil War between supporters of the King and the Anglican Church VS. supporters of Oliver Cromwell and the Puritan Church.
War ended with the king's beheading, his young son (Prince) escaping to France, and Oliver Cromwell as ruler of England.
Execution of King Charles II
Cromwell and the Puritans won, tried Charles as a “tyrant, traitor, and murderer.”
Executed King in 1649
Some dipped handkerchiefs in King’s blood as souvenirs.
Puritan Commonwealth (1649-1660)
Only time England has not had a sitting king or queen
Military victory led by Oliver Cromwell:
Responsible for attempting Catholic genocide in Ireland
Generally, hated by the Irish
After Restoration, corpse dug up, beheaded, and put in commoners’ pit
LIFE IN PURITAN COMMONWEALTH
closed all theatres
2. banned dancing and music
3. destroyed all religious icons “graven images”
4. forbade celebration of Christmas
RESTORATION OF THE MONARCHY
THE RESTORATION: Return of King Charles II (1660-1685) PARTY TIME!!!
Son of Charles I
Went into exile to France as a young boy
Lived for time at Versailles
Wavered between Catholicism and Anglicanism
Invited back to “restore” the monarchy after Commonwealth fell
Reopened theaters and dance halls
Reestablished Christmas as a holiday
Had 12 illegitimate children by 7 mistresses
No legitimate heirs
Rumor – deathbed conversion to Catholicism
Started intellectual movement that set the stage for the “Enlightenment” or “the Age of Reason” that took hold in the 1800's
MAJOR DISASTERS OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY
Plague of 1665
Hot summers of 1664,65 and squalid conditions intensified plague
Rubbish, including human waste, thrown on streets
Plague was caused by disease-carrying fleas carried on bodies of rats
Fire of 1666 may have helped eradicate the plague
Great Fire of 1666
1. started on September 2, 1666
2. started in a London bakery on Pudding Lane
3. 0nly 5 deaths recorded
4. fire spread slowly over 4 days, from Sunday to Wednesday
5. Destroyed Medieval city within the old Roman city wall
6. Destroyed 13,200 houses and St. Paul’s Cathedral
7. Blamed on Catholics and foreigners
8. City was rebuilt to become Europe’s largest by 1750.
King James II AND THE GLORIOUS REVOLUTION(1685-89)
Brother of Charles II
Expelled, Fled to France – called the “Glorious Revolution” (bloodless coup)
Last Catholic “Stuart” king
William and Mary (1689-1702)
Mary- James’s Protestant daughter and her Dutch husband
Wanted to ensure a Protestant monarch
Mary died in 1694, but William of Orange continued to rule until his death in 1702.
Their rule was the only time England has had "joint sovereigns."
Queen Anne (1702-1714)
In 1707, England and Scotland officially became GREAT BRITAIN
Despite 17 pregnncies with her husband Prince George of Denmark, she had no children.
She was succeeded by her cousin.
THE END OF THE STUARTS
THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY ( THE AGE OF REASON)
2. Thinkers helped to shape ideals of American and other revolutions.
3. Ideas of the scientific revolution laid foundation of modern world view based on rationalism and secularism.
4. Widespread use of the scientific method was crucial to development of modern science.
5. Intellectuals advocated the rights of the individual, paving way for the rise of world democracies.
HANOVER DYNASTY OF THE 1700'S: The Age of the Georges (OH MY!)
King George I (1714- 1727)
his mother was James I's granddaughter (thus a descendant of the Stuarts)
became king at age 54
married his first cousin, Sophie
Had 1 son and 1 daughter
both king and queen had affairs
George had Sophie's lover murdered and imprisoned her in a tower
Had children with his mistress
Never spoke English well
Considered uncouth by the English, who dd not understand him and considered him "too German"
Wanted his son to choose his wife, unlike him
King George II (1727-1760)
Last king born in Germany
Had mistresses and illegitimate children too
Had problems with his father and with his son Frederick who died unexpectedly
KING GEORGE III (1760-1801)
Did not speak German as a first language; had never visited Hanover
Was not mentally competent ; labelled "Mad"- had recurrent bouts of mental illness
Movie- The Madness of King George
Lost the colonies
Married Princess Charlotte; never had a mistress, unlike his father and his sons
Had 15 children
KING GEORGE IV (1801-1830)
Had affair with a married woman (Mrs. Fitzherbert, a Catholic) throughout his reign
Had several illegitimate children with many mistresses
Both he and his wife had affairs.
Had extravagant lifestyle; a party animal
Became king at 57, obese and addicted to laudanum
KING WILLIAM IV (1830-1837)
Had 2 legitimate daughters, but both died in infancy
Had 10 out of wedlock children
THE LAST HANOVER KING
When he died, his neice Victoria became Queen: She started the "Victorian Era."