The Civil Rights Movement

By Jazmin Hopkins, pr. 4

Our Civil Right Community

Before the Civil Rights movement came about; America wasn't always a free and just place. In the 1950's and 60's racism was one of the many problems that existed back then, a lot of people were treated unfairly for their skin colors or supporting the, "lesser man." But that didn't stop them from trying to get equal rights. The fight for fairness was long and hard, and finally when they thought nothing was going to change, they saw light at the end of the tunnel. A day for equality and everyone's rights had come.

Looking at now instead of back then, the civil rights movement has made a drastic change for America. Even though there are still problems floating around, today is much better then what it was. Children are allowed to go to the same schools no matter their race, everyone gets paid the same for the same job, people can sit on the buses without having to sit in the back because of their color, you can vote without worrying for your safety, and much more. In my flier we will be discussing about the struggles it took to get to this point, how people even faced with death fought for what was right.

Tactics For To Gain Their Future

Many tactics were used during this time, the movement was made by acts of civil resistance. These acts were nonviolent and got their point across, one of the most used type of protest was the sit-ins. On February 1, 1960, at 4:30 p.m. four colored college students who were residents in Greensboro, South Carolina, located on 132 south Elm Street sat in the Woolworth store. They sat in the seats of the lunch counter that did not serve people of their race. The manager at the time, Clarence Harris, asked the boys to leave. They refused and were ignored until the end of the day when the store closed. As time went on, more people started to join the boys on this sit in. As time went on word traveled around and the community started to follow this nonviolent example.

Another type of protest during this time was done by the Freedom Riders. They were Civil Rights activists who rode on interstate buses through Southern United States. The Freedom Riders were testing the supreme court's decision on the Boynton v. Virginia (1960), which ruled that segregation was unconstitutional for passengers to engage in interstate travel. This project was organized by CORE. On May 4, 1961, the first Freedom Rider's left Washington D.C. and was scheduled to arrive at New Orleans on May 17.

Voting was another major part of protest during this time. After the Freedom Riders word traveled to leaders in Mississippi: Amzie Moore, Aaron Henry, Medgar Evers, and many others asked the group SCNN to help register colored voters and build a community of organizations that could win a share of political power in the state. Since Mississippi had it's new constitution in 1890 with provisions like poll taxes, residency requirements, and literacy tests, it made situations for registration more complicated. Violence around election time has also repressed African Americans from voting for fear of their lives and families.

Civil Rights Pictures

Unsung Women Heros

Ella Baker (1903-1986)

Ella Baker was highly respected by her people, she mostly did "behind the scenes" like advising, supporting and mentoring some of the greats. She mentored: WEB Dubois, Thurgood Marshall, Martin Luther King Jr, and Rosa Parks. Because of her abilities of leadership and movement builder, Baker earned the nickname "Fundi," which is Swahili for, "A person who teaches craft to the next generation."

Daisy Bates (1914-1999)

Daisy Bates was a women who worked for the newspaper, she published and documented the fights to end segregation and discrimination in Arkansas. She became the president of the Arkansas chapter that belonged to NAACP and played a crucial role in desegregation. Fighting to desegregate public schools, Bates was one of the guiding forces that enrolled nine African American students into an all-white-school in Little Rock. They were famously known as the little rock nine. Bate's constant efforts to promote and enforce education equality are regarded as one of the major contributions to the Civil Rights Movement.

Important Civil Right Groups

NAACP: This group was founded in 1901 and it was one of the earliest, influential Civil Rights Organization in the United States. During it's early years, the NAACP focused it's attention on legal strategies designed to confront and tackle the critical civil rights issue of back then. They called for federal anti-lynching laws they also challenged to desegregate public schools. Which was a landmark in 1954 Supreme Court decision Brown V. Board of Education that decided the "Separate but equal" was unconstitutional. In 1963 they organized the March on Washington, and successfully lobbying for legislation that had the result of the 1964 Civil Rights At and 1964 voting Act.

CORE: This group was in interracial organization established by James Farmer in 1942 . It was to create and improve race relations and discriminatory policies through direct-action projects. Farmer founded CORE to protest in nonviolent matters, in 1942 they began the sit-ins in a coffee shop in Chicago. This was a non violent way to show the public that they want equality. In 1950, CORE turned it's attention to the South to help and desegregate and help with voting registration.