Unit 1

Components of physical fitness

Aerobic endurance - the ability of the cardiorespiratory system to work efficiently,supplying nutrients and oxygen to working muscles during sustained activity.

Muscular endurance- the ability of the muscular system to work efficiently,where a muscle can continue contracting over a period of time against a light to moderate fixed resistance load.

Muscular strengths - the maximum force(in kg or N) that can be generated by a muscle or muscle group.

Body composition - the relative ratio of fat mass to fat-free mass (vital organs, muscle, bone) in the body .

Exercise intensity and how it can be determined

Intensity - be able to measure heart rate (HR) and apply HR intensity to fitness training methods.

Know about target zones and training thresholds. Be able to calculate training zone for training zones and apply HR max to training HR max = 220 - age (years).

Be able to calculate 60-85%HR max and know that this is the recommended training zone for cardiovascular health and fitness.

Know that the Borg (1970) (6-20) rating of perceived exertion (RPE) scale can be used as a measure of exercise intensity.

Know about the relationship between RPE and heart rate where RPEx10 = HR (bpm)

Application of the FITT principle to training method, regimes and given exercise situation

Learning aim B: Explore different fitness training methods Topic B.1 Requirements for each of the following fitness training methods:

● safe, correct use of equipment

● safe, correct use of training technique

● requirements for undertaking the fitness training method, including warm-up

and cool down

● application of the basic principles of training (FITT) for each fitness training


● linking each fitness training method to the associated health-related/

skill-related component of fitness.


Topic A.6 Additional principles of training:

● progressive overload:

o definition: in order to progress, training needs to be demanding enough to

cause the body to adapt, improving performance.

● specificity:

o definition: training should be specific to the individual’s sport, activity or

physical/skill-related fitness goals to be developed.

● individual differences/needs:

o definition: the programme should be designed to meet individual training

goals and needs.

● adaptation:

o definition: how the body reacts to training loads by increasing its ability to

cope with those loads

o adaptation occurs during the recovery period after the training session is


● reversibility:

o definition: if training stops, or the intensity of training is not sufficient to

cause adaptation, training effects are reversed.

● variation: it is important to vary the training regime to avoid boredom and

maintain enjoyment

● rest and recovery are required so that the body can recover from the training

and to allow adaptation to occur

● application of the principles of training to training methods, regimes and given

exercise settings.