Nationalism

Extreme pride in one's country-starting in the 19th century

Primary Source- Gavrilo Princip during his trial for the murder of Archduke Franz Ferdinand

"I am a Yugoslav nationalist, aiming for the unification of all Yugoslavs, and I do not care what form of state, but it must be freed from Austria."

Causes

Nationalism ultimately began after the Enlightenment, which encouraged national identity, but nationalism is usually sparked by either political/social unrest or the mistreatment and embarrassment of a nation as a whole. With the political/social unrest, when people are unhappy in their current situation there's always someone who tries to unite their nation under nationalism to repair the unrest. For example, when China was under attack by Japan the People's Republic of China was founded (1949) and lead the nationalism movement to pick up China's crushed spirits. With regards to the mistreatment or embarrassment of a nation, when a nation as a whole goes through a traumatic experience its leaders try to heal some of the pain by uniting the nation and making sure it never happens again. An example of this is China after The Century of Humiliation (1839-1949) when China began to stand up to Japan after being constantly tormented.

Effects

There are a lot of effects for nationalism but the most prominent are competition between nations, overthrowing of leaders, and it can also create war. When nations began to grow nationalistic, a sense of competition arose. Everyone wanted to be the hegemony, or at least one of the major world powers, which wasn't necessarily bad because it started a competition for scientific and technological advances as well-which led to a lot of helpful ideas and inventions(i.e. guns, tanks, and other wartime weapons). Nationalism can also lead to the overthrowing of leadership or governments. When nationalism takes over, generally all foreign power/influence is wanted out. For example, after World War 2 most of the African countries and a few Southeast Asian counties kicked out European colonial rule and became independent nations. When nationalism results in war, it's usual because of tensions caused by the desire for more land, a nation rebelling against foreign power, or the competitive attitude.

Examples