1750-1900's

Creek WHAP

Taiping Uprising

It's leaders largely rejected Confuncianism, Daoism, and Buddhism alike, finding their primary ideology in a unique form of Christianity. It's leading figure, Hong Xiuquan (1814-1864) , proclaimed himself the younger brother of Jesus, sent to cleaspnse the world of demons and to establish a "heavenly kingdom of great peace." These leaders content to restore an idealized Chinese society; instead they missed on genuinely revolutionary change. They called for the abolition of private property, a radical redistribution of land, end of prostitution and opium smoking, and the oranization of society into sexually segregated military camps of men and women.

Opium Wars

There were two opium wars they both happened in the mid-19th century involving Anglo-Chinese disputes over British trade in China and China's power. The disputes included the first Opuim War (1839-1842) and the second Opium War (1856-1860). The wars and events between them weakened the Qing dynasty and reduced China's separation from the rest of the world.

Unequal Treaties

Series of treaties signed with western powers during the 19th and early 20th centuries by Qing dynasty China and late Tokugawa Japan after suffering military defeat by foreign powers or when there was a threat of military action by those powers.

Self-strengthening movement

1861-1895, was a period of institutional reforms initiated in China during the late Qing dynasty following a series of military defeats and concessions to foreign powers.

Boxer Uprising

In 1900, in what became known as the Boxer Rebellion, a Chinese secret organization called the Society of the Righteous and Harmonious First led an uprising in northern China against the spread of Western and Japanese influence there.

Commissioner Lin

Lin's forceful opposition to the opium trade was a primary catalyst for the First Opium War of 1839-42. He is praised for his constant position on the "moral high ground" in his fight, but he is also blamed for a rigid approach which failed to account for the domestic and international complexities of the problem. The Daoguang Emperor endorsed the hard line policies advocated by Lin, but then blamed Lin for the resulting disastrous war.

Chinese Revolution of 1911

Was a revolution that overthrew China's last imperial dynasty the Qing dynasty, and established the Republice of China. The revolution was named Xinhai because it occurred in 1911, the year of the Xinhai stem ranch in the sexagenarian cycle of the Chinese calendar.

"The sick man of Europe"

Is a label giving to a European country experiencing a time of economic difficulty or impoverished. The term was first used in the mid-19th century to describe the Ottoman Empire, but has since been applied at one time or another Neto nearly every other major country in Europe.

Tanzimat

We're a series of reforms in the Ottoman Empire that brought the culture, education, religion and society more in line with Europe and the United States and western ways.

Young Ottomans

Were a secret society established in 1865 by a group of Otyoman Turkish intellectuals who were dissatisfied with the Tanzimat reforms in the Ottoman Empire, which they believed did not go far enough.

Sultan Abd al-Hamid II

Was the 34th Sultan of Ottoman Empire and the last Sultan to e exert effective automatic control over the fracturing state. He oversaw a period of decline in the power and extent of the Ottoman Empire, including widespread pogroms and government-sanctioned massacres of Armenians, Kurds, Bulgarians, as well as an assassination attempt, ruling from 31 August 1876 until he was deposed shortly after the 1908 You g Turk Revolution, on April 27, 1909. He promulgated the first Ottoman constitution of 1876 on December 23, 1876' primarily o ward off foreign intervention, which was a sign of progressive thinking that marked his early rule.

Young Turks

Largely abandoning any reference to Islam, they advocated a militantly secular public life, were committed to thoroughgoing modernization along European lines, and lucreasingly thought about the Ottoman Empire as a Turkish national state. "There is only one civilization, and that is European civilization," declared Abdullah Cevdet, a prominent figure in the Young Turk movement. "Therefore we must borrow western civilization with both its rose and its thorn."

Informal empires

Describes the spheres of influence which an empire may develop that translate into a degree of influence over a region or country, which is not a formal colony in the empire, as a result of the extension of commercial, strategic or military interests of the empire.

Tokugawa Japan

Was the last feudal Japanese military government which existed between 1603 and 1867. The heads of government were the shoguns, a nd each was a member of the Tokugawa clan. The Tokugawa shogunate became known as the Edo period. This time is also called the Tokugawa period or pre-modern.

Meiji restoration

Was a chain of events that restored practical imperial rule t Japan in 1868 under Emperor Meiji. The events restored practical abilities and consolidated the political system under the Emperor of Japan. The goals of the restored government were expressed by the new emperor in the Charter Oath. The Restoration led to enormous changes in Japan's political and social structure, and spanned both the late Edo period and the beginning of the Meiji period.

Russo-Japanese war 1904-1905

was fought between the Russian Empire and the Empire of Japan over rival imperial ambitions in Manchuria and Korea. The major theatres of operations were the Liaodong Peninsula and Mukden in southern Manchuria, and the seas around Korea, Japan, and the Yellow Sea.