It's leaders largely rejected Confuncianism, Daoism, and Buddhism alike, finding their primary ideology in a unique form of Christianity. It's leading figure, Hong Xiuquan (1814-1864) , proclaimed himself the younger brother of Jesus, sent to cleaspnse the world of demons and to establish a "heavenly kingdom of great peace." These leaders content to restore an idealized Chinese society; instead they missed on genuinely revolutionary change. They called for the abolition of private property, a radical redistribution of land, end of prostitution and opium smoking, and the oranization of society into sexually segregated military camps of men and women.
There were two opium wars they both happened in the mid-19th century involving Anglo-Chinese disputes over British trade in China and China's power. The disputes included the first Opuim War (1839-1842) and the second Opium War (1856-1860). The wars and events between them weakened the Qing dynasty and reduced China's separation from the rest of the world.
Lin's forceful opposition to the opium trade was a primary catalyst for the First Opium War of 1839-42. He is praised for his constant position on the "moral high ground" in his fight, but he is also blamed for a rigid approach which failed to account for the domestic and international complexities of the problem. The Daoguang Emperor endorsed the hard line policies advocated by Lin, but then blamed Lin for the resulting disastrous war.
"The sick man of Europe"
Is a label giving to a European country experiencing a time of economic difficulty or impoverished. The term was first used in the mid-19th century to describe the Ottoman Empire, but has since been applied at one time or another Neto nearly every other major country in Europe.
Sultan Abd al-Hamid II
Was the 34th Sultan of Ottoman Empire and the last Sultan to e exert effective automatic control over the fracturing state. He oversaw a period of decline in the power and extent of the Ottoman Empire, including widespread pogroms and government-sanctioned massacres of Armenians, Kurds, Bulgarians, as well as an assassination attempt, ruling from 31 August 1876 until he was deposed shortly after the 1908 You g Turk Revolution, on April 27, 1909. He promulgated the first Ottoman constitution of 1876 on December 23, 1876' primarily o ward off foreign intervention, which was a sign of progressive thinking that marked his early rule.
Largely abandoning any reference to Islam, they advocated a militantly secular public life, were committed to thoroughgoing modernization along European lines, and lucreasingly thought about the Ottoman Empire as a Turkish national state. "There is only one civilization, and that is European civilization," declared Abdullah Cevdet, a prominent figure in the Young Turk movement. "Therefore we must borrow western civilization with both its rose and its thorn."
Was the last feudal Japanese military government which existed between 1603 and 1867. The heads of government were the shoguns, a nd each was a member of the Tokugawa clan. The Tokugawa shogunate became known as the Edo period. This time is also called the Tokugawa period or pre-modern.
Was a chain of events that restored practical imperial rule t Japan in 1868 under Emperor Meiji. The events restored practical abilities and consolidated the political system under the Emperor of Japan. The goals of the restored government were expressed by the new emperor in the Charter Oath. The Restoration led to enormous changes in Japan's political and social structure, and spanned both the late Edo period and the beginning of the Meiji period.