History of the Church

Theology II Semester Exam (Hans Li)

The Roman Empire

The spread of Christianity throughout the Empire in less than 100 year, be traveling around, taking care of the poor, love each other and been kind and generous. They were called the "followers in the way", because they believe Jesus is the way to god. With the Roman Empire had expand, including many large cities and good roads, A series of emperors who were curl, demented, or both called into question the practice of pagan worship which created a spiritual vacuum. Nero, the king, had spread the rummor that Christians are (fire). The Society also start to hate christians, because they were opposed to its enjoyment.

Chapter 1 Jesus and The Founding of The Church.

Jesus begins his public ministry, called St. Peter who will be the leader of the Twelve Apostles. St. peter became the head of the Church. And St. Paul converted to Christianity. Then, Emperor Claudius expels Christians from Rome; St. Peter presides over Council of Jerusalem.Pentecost marks the enduring presence of the Holy Spirit in the Church that enables Christians to announce the truth of Christ's Gospel. The Church is built upon the foundation of the Apostles. The hierarchy of the Church can be traced back to the Apostles.

Chapter 2 The Early Christians

Christians are indistinguishable from other men either by nationality, language or customs. They do not inhabit separate cities of their own. The beliefs and practice of the early community of Christians took some time to develop-Christ did not leave his Church with a fully developed theology and disciplinary practice. For the early Christians, Wednesdays and Fridays of fasting and penance. For their family life, Christianity raised the status of the family to a "domestic church." It was in and through the family that the ideal of Christian charity found its roots.

Chapter 3 Persecution of "The Way"

Nero, the early king, launches persecutions of Christians. Titus and destroy the jerusalem. St. Clement I was Pope; restored the Sacrament of Confirmation according to the rite of St. Peter. Soon, St. Ignatius of Antioch martyred, St. Telesphorus was pope.martyred in 136; He composed the Gloria in Excelsis Deo. Sts. perpetual and Fellicity are martyred in the area of Carthage. Then, Constaitine adapts Christianity symbol before the battle.

Chapter 4 The Church Fathers and Heresies

Christians suffer great persecution Galleries. Then, Constantinople dedicate as capital of :new Rome.) Around 350s, St. basil and Great founds Monastic community. Pagan revival under Empeemperor Julian and Apostate. St. Bail becomes bishop of Ceasarea bishop of aLEXANDRIA, CITIES 27 NT cano. Emperor theodosius decrees Christianity official religion of the Empire, and forbids pagan Olympic Games closed temple of zeus at Olympia.

Chapter 5 Light in the Dark Ages

St. Augustine fies, Council of Ephesus- third Ecumenical- defined Mary to be the Mother of god. Council of Chalcedon defined the human and divine natures of christ in one person. Roman Empire collapsed, last western emperor is Romulus Augustulus. The moral situation from the fifth through eighth centuries was grim as a former Roman order crumbled. At year 640, Library of Alexandria destroyed with 300,000 ancient papyrus scrolls.

Chapter 7 The Great Schism

In the Great Schism, all of the tension that had developed over the previous centuries came to a head. Emperor Constans II orders Ravenna independent of Rome. The third Ecumenical Council of Constantinople had formed. Patriarch Germanus executed for defying leo III, the emperor. At, year 800, Charlemagne crowed holy Roman Emperor by Pope St. Leo III. And the Bulgar leader kills Emperor Nicephorus. Around 795 to 816, Methodius anointed by empress Theodora. And Ecumenical Patriarch and pope excommunicate each other at 1050s.

Chapter 9 The Crusades

Muslims sack and loot the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem. Burning becomes the common penalty severe heresy, carried out by the state. Pope Bl. Urban II at Clemont calls for the creation of a Christian army to protect pilgrims from Muslims attacks, repulse the Turkish pressure on the East and liberate Jerusalem; First crusade, the most successful crusade ever, was during 1095- 1099. Second crusade was at 1147 - 1148. ( Crusade refferd specifically to a series of eight expansive military expeditions that the Christian people undertook roughly between the years of 1096 and 1270 as a action in the Turks in the Holy Land and the Muslims in Spain, but also against heresies, like the Albigensians, whose teachings violated the most fundamental principles of Christianity.

Chapter 9 The Inquisition

Inquisition mean questioning. It was the react to the threat to the church during the medieval time. The Inquisition began largely in reaction to the Albigensian heresy, which was growing strong and fast in southern France during the early part of the thirteenth century. Albigensianisms rejected the mass, they hate anything that had todo with the world. The punishment of Inquisition was excommunication, which mean been cut out. The hardest penalties were imprisonment and various degrees of exclusion from the communion of the Church, as well as consequent surrender to the civil power for harsher sentencing.

Chapter 10 The High Middle Ages

During the High Middle Ages, scholastic and cultures had been specially developed. With the demand of education increase, the number of Universities also increased. Some feudal organizations also restructure the schools into guilds. The guild organizations allowed these universities to remain independent. Studium general ( unifying schools) had been developed. It decided into two parts: Trivium and quadrivium (master of art). For the culture aspect, from the time of Constantine, Christian architecture centered around the form of the Roman Basilica. Also polyphonic musical styles layered, blended, and harmonized complex and intricate melodies in extraordinary unity.

Chapter 11 The Plague

The plague is also known as the black plague, because the harsh effect of the Black Death.

Black death is a disease that were cureless during the thirteenth century. More than one third of the european people dead by it. Black death tore into the weakened populations of Europe from 1347- 1351. ( subsequent epidemics would occur regularly every ten years until the eighteenth century.) The plague laid waste to the political, intellectual, and economic leadership of Europe. Sometimes entire towns or monasteries would be destroyed by plague.

Big image

Chapter 11 The Hundred Years War

The Hundred Years War was a War between England and France happened between 1337- 1453. It was in fact a series of short battles interrupted by long periods of relative peace. The war caused by many factors, one of the fact was the "dispute" relationship between two countries royal families, Another effect was that all the hostilities exploded when the french king Charles IV, the last son of Philip IV, died without a hear in 1328. In 1356, King Edward III's eldest son Edwards (the black prince) led an English offensive at poitiers. In 138. Edward III dead. king Henry V destroyed the elite of the French aristocracy and overwhelmed the King of France at Agincourt in 1415.

Chapter 11 Joan of Arc

Joan of Arc was a Saints who fight of her own faith in her brave life. She was born at Domremy in Champagne, probably on January 6, 1412. She always dressed in me's cloths, St. Joan succeeded in convincing the king of the sincerity of her mission, and in May 1429, she led a small army against the English who had captured the city of Orleans. Through the services of St, Joan of arc, the tide of battle turned against the English. Although St. Joan was captured and killed, her efforts enabled the French army to begin a counteroffensive against the English.
Big image

Chapter 12 The Renaissance

The Renaissance means "rebirth". Along with the sociopolitical changes, there were changes in people's intellectual pursuits. As education became more widely available, people looked aways from the theological Scholasticism that flourished in the days of St. Thomas Aquinas and instead turned to the accent Latin and Greek classics. The Major focus was tied all subjects together: God. During 1508 - 1512, Machiavelli's The prince is published, Charles V elected Holy Roman Emperor. Then, king Henry VIII of England passes" oath of Succession", the Church of England had been established.

Chapter 13 The Protestant Reformation

In the middle of 16th century, reformers started to question " eating of the Church." ( shaking the very foundations of Christendom.) The legacy of this time poses one of the greatest challenges for full Christian unity. The protest an revolt mainly include 1. Churches need to be reformed. 2. Society was changing. Moral crisis/ different vested interests among ecclesiastics. 3. Transformations served as lucrative means of raising sounds needed to pay for dazzling churched and works of art.
Big image

Chapter 13 The English Reformation

The last of the movements to bring about protestant revolution occurred in England. At the former 16th century, the Catholic Church was in better condition than in any country in Europe with the issue of papal authority specifically regarding the issue of the king's marriage and, later, the English monarch as head of the Church in England. Henry VII was the king of England who ended the conflict and restored calm and prosperity to England. He had turned to his friend St. Thomas More in the hopes that the scholar's good reputation would sway the mind of the Pope. When Archbishop William Warham of Canterbury died, Henry named Thomas Granmer, the personal confessor of Anne Boleyn and a secret Lutheran, as the new archbishop. This was the act of Supremacy.

Chapter 15 Exploration and Missionary Movements

While Europe was divided along religious and political lines in the 16th century, the Church embarked upon the greatest missionary expansion of her history, reaching out to millions of new faithful around the world. This remarkable period of evangelization came about through the efforts of a relatively small number of holy missionaries who truly believed that " God desired the salvation of everyone." Four main countries in this great missionary are French, Portugal, Spain and England. There were many obstacles such as climate changes, Languages and lack or experience. When the missions about to failed, St, Francis Xavier save the missions. He traveled to many countries like India, China, Japan, and he baptized thousands of people.

Chapter 16 The Age of Enlightenment

The Reformation and the wars that followed brought to a close an era of a united Western Christendom. New philosophies had developed in significant part found their origins in the Renaissance and Reformation. Cardinal Mazzarin Dies, Louis XIV and taken full control of France. The sun king Louis XIV ascended the throne in 1643 at the age of five. Since the conflict between Pope Boniface VIII and King Philip IV in 1303, the relationship between the Church and the kings of France became strained. King Louis's difficulties with the Church arose over administration, not from matters of doctrine and spirituality.

Chapter 19 The Rise of Soviet Communism

Soviet Communism was to become the driving force behind an international program of subversion, revolution, conquest, oppression, and religious and political persecution that coast millions of lives and threatened the peace and stability of the world for seven decades. Soviet- style Communism had its roots in the theories of Karl Marx, who in 1848 with Friedrich Engels set out their key ideas in the Communist Manifesto. Skilled in propaganda, the Communists in the 1920s and 1930s convinced many Western intellectuals that the Soviet Union was a workers' paradise and a model for the world.

Chapter 19 The Rise of Nazism

Nazism are members of the National Socialist GermanWorkers' Party, which controlled Germany from1933 to 1945 under Adolf Hitler and advocated totalitarian government, territorial expansion,anti-Semitism, and Aryan supremacy, all theseleading directly to World War II and the Holocaust of Jewish people. Pius XI had no illusions about the intentions of the Nazi leader but hoped, he said, to " safeguard the freedom of the Church" in Hitler's Germany.

Chapter 19 Pope Pius XII and World War II

Along with being active in world affaires, Pope Pius XII produced a significant body of teaching, much of it is contained in a series of important encyclicals that helped set the stage for the Second Vatican Council. He also appointed fifty-six cardinals, increased the number of dioceses in the world from 1696 to 2048, and established national hierarchies in China, Burma, and a number of African countries. During the world War II, there were two saints of the Nazi Persecution. First one is Maximilian Kolbe, e was the priest and martyr. After the fall of poland, he was arrested by the Nazis, released, and then arrested again in 1941 for assisting Jews and members of the Polish underground. Edith Stein was another one. She did not know Christian before, but she studied philosophy and read the autobiography of Saint Teresa of Avila, she was moved to covert and was baptized on January 1, 1922. As Nazi campaign against Jews intensified, she was smuggled to the Netherlands in 1938.
Big image

Chapter 20 Vatican II

Vatican II means Vatican Council, Second. During 1962 -65, the 21st ecumenical council of the Rome Catholic Church, continued under Paul VI. In the 20th Century, increasingly secular attitudes towards Matrimony and sexuality changed the way the family and society understand itself.The council was instrumental for renewal in the self- understanding of the Church, its inner life and its relationship to other Christian traditions, other religions and the world.

Chapter 20 Post St. Joan Paul II

After the death of Pope Paul VI, the cardinals chose the patriarch of Venice, Cardinal Albino Luciani, as Pope on August 26, 1978. Dismayed at having to choose another Pope so soon, the cardinals now turned to the first non-Italian in more than 450 years. Karol Wojtyla was born in the Polish industrial town of Wadowice. While World War two erupt, Young Wojtyla worked in a stone quarry and later in a chemical factory. But he also participated in underground theater as a cultural protest against the occupation. In november 1, 1946, he traveled to Rome to study at the Pontifical University of St. Thomas Aquinas, the Dominican institution popularly known as the theologian St. John of the Cross. On january 13, 1964 Pope Paul VI named him Archbishop of Krakow- the first time in thirteen years that Poland's Communist rulers had allowed the appointment of a residential archbishop.

Chapter 21 The Church of Immigrants to the U.S

Massive Catholic immigration from Europe to the United States began early in the nineteenth century and continued well into the twentieth century. The newcomers were attracted by the promise of work, land, and religious and political freedom. With the immigrants coming, the higher birth rate also had caused. But with the population growth, the anti- Catholicism and risen. Although the United states government is committed by its Constitution to religious toleration, Starting in the 1830s Catholic immigration and repaid Catholic population growth were greeted by the rise of anti-Catholic Nativism.

Chapter 21 Slavery

aLTHOUGH pope Gregory XVI had condemned the slave trade in 1839, Catholic leadership in the United States, preoccupied with the problems of an immigrant community, has little to say about the issue. In fact, many Catholics, especially in the South, supported the legal institution of slavery. None of the Boston abolitionists was Catholic, and many abolitionists were actively hostile to the Church. Also, large numbers of Catholics fought on both sides in the Civil War. More than twenty Union generals and eleven Confederate generals were Catholics. Of the four million slaves emancipated in 1863, an approximate 100,000 were Catholics, about 60,000 of those in New Orleans.