This is a picture of the Fertile Crescent or Mesopotamia in present day.
This picture shows the distance from Elm City to Iran.
The Fertile Crescent
This shows that Mesopotamiacan also be known as the Fertile Crescent
1. Sumerians:3500 - 1800 B.C.
2. Kassites:1530 - 1170 B.C.
3. Assyrians:1170 - 612 B.C.
4. Chaldeans:612 - 539 B.C.
5. Akkadians:2340 - 2125 B.C.
6. Amorites:1800 - 1530
7. Hitites:1600 - 717 B.C.
The requirements of a civilization:
2. Written Language
3. Religious Structure
4. Political Structure
5. Materialistic Value
The Importance of Hammurabi Laws
1. If any one ensnare another, putting a ban upon him, but he cannot prove it, then he that ensnared him shall be put to death.
2. If he satisfy the elders to impose a fine of grain or money, he shall receive the fine that the action produces.
3. If any one steal the property of a temple or of the court, he shall be put to death, and also the one who receives the stolen thing from him shall be put to death.
4. If the owner do not bring witnesses to identify the lost article, he is an evil-doer, he has traduced, and shall be put to death.
The Story of Gilgamesh
Thousands of years ago early settlers began building cities around the banks of the two rivers, the Euphrates and Tigris rivers. Natural wildlife and vegetation is what kept them fed while they began to build their new world. They wove baskets that were sturdy and strong from the weeds that they grew around their riverbanks and made pottery from the wet clay they found. This place didn't get much rain so they then learned that if you irrigated the land, crops grow quickly. These people built canals to bring water from the river and carry it to the land. They planted wheat, barley, and dates. They also grew other things including cucumbers, onions, apples, and spices. They raised sheep, goats, and cows. They hunted wild game birds and other animals, and enjoyed fish, cheese, eggs, roasted duck, pork, and deer.
How did poisoned fields lead to the collapse of Mesopotamia?
Along with factors such as war and changes in the environment, scientists now believe irrigation techniques had an important role in Mashkan-shapir's collapse. The same process that allowed farming in this region also soon made it impossible to farm. Irrigation has a trick to it if irrigation water is allowed to sit on the fields and evaporate, it leaves behind mineral salts; if attempts are made to drain off irrigation water and it flows through the soil too quickly, erosion becomes a problem. Scientists also believe that Mashkan-shapir's collapse was caused in part by destruction of the fields by the salt in the minerals. When minerals concentrate in the upper levels of the soil, it becomes poisonous for plants. In Mesopotamia, irrigation was essential for the production of crops. The rivers were higher than the surrounding plain because of built-up silt in the river beds, so water for irrigation flowed into the fields by gravity. Once the water was on the fields, it could not smoothly drain because the river was higher than the land. As the water evaporated, it not only left its dissolved mineral salts behind, but also drew salts upward from lower levels of the soil. Over time, the soil became toxic and would no longer support crops.
What did Mesopotamians eat?
Why did Mesopotamians live close to bodies of water?
Prehistoric people were always moving. They had no home because they were always in search of food. They couldn't rely on having a steady food supply, then finding food becomes their highest priority. When people have enough food, they begin to develop other needs. When people have one job, through constant practice, they tend to do that job very well. They are also more likely to work at a job that brings them satisfaction and happiness. In order for people to work at individual jobs, people must be able to work with one another. When people have the same laws, it is easier to trade. People living under the same government, or having the same religious beliefs are likely to have the same values. A level of trust and mutual responsibility often grows among people who share the same values.
What is takes to farm.
• Plough- After flooding the field use plough to break up land.
• Harrow- Run harrow over large chunks to smooth and level soil or field.
• Sow- Drop seeds into ploughed field to grow.
• Water- After sown put water in land here times.
• Harvest- Cut and collect crops.
The gardens were located on east the bank of the river Euphrates, in the city of Babylon and may have been built in 600 B.C. No Greek historian has seen them, it just consists in stories told by soldats, which is a quite doubtful source of information. According to the legend king Nebuchadnezzar II would have made build the famous hanging gardens of Babylon for his wife Sémiramis to remind her the vegetation of the moutains from her natal country.
What is Cuniform?
Ziggurats were temples. Like many ancient people, the ancient Sumerians believed that powerful gods lived in the sky. They built huge structures, called ziggurats, with steps climbing up to the top. From the top of the Ziggurat, you could see the protective wall built about the entire town, and over the wall to the farmlands beyond.Formal and religious ceremonies were held at the very top. One of the jobs of the priests was to enjoy these offerings, because as everyone knew, the gods could not eat for themselves. It was the center of daily life. You might see an artist painting, a boy racing by on his way to school, someone milking a cow or making a basket.