Ancient Civilizations Exhibit

Dallas Museum of Natural History

Ancient China

Ancient Mesopotamia

Tigris-Euphrates river system

Located near the modern day Iraq

Cities- (Sumner)Ur, Eridu, Bad-tibiria, Akkad, Larasa, Sippar

Ancient Egypt

The Old Kingdom (2700 BCE-2200 BCE):

Religion:
-Pharaohs had absolute power and were considered gods on earth.
Government:
-The pharaoh was the supreme ruler of ancient egypt (can be compared to a dictator). The people of egypt viewed the pharaoh as half man and half god. He owned all of egypt, and citizens were forced to pay taxes, donate labor, and create art.

The Middle Kingdom (2100 BCE-1800 BCE):

Writing:
-A full written language of hieroglyphs was used on the sacred monuments, while hieratic was used on papyrus documents. Middle Egyptian texts are extremely varied and comprise stories, historical narratives, letters, scientific treatises, and a large number of religious sources.
Social Structure:
-There was a very complex social structure that carried through ancient egypt, although there were few minor changes, from the bottom it went from slaves and servants, to the highest level pharaos.


The New Kingdom (1500 BCE-1000 BCE):

Cities:
-This period is characterized by Egypt's military involvement and expansion in Syria and Palestine.High Priests and military leaders, people just under the social class of pharaos gained enormous power, which in the end challenged the pharaonic rule, and led to the collapse of the State and the division of the country.
-18th dynasty- Capital city in Thebes
-19th dynasty- Ramses 1 moved the capital city to Avaris a.k.a Pi-Ramesse
-20th dynasty-Capital city in Avaris
Art:
-Money poured into Egypt during this time due to foriegn ruling and alot of this money was used by the pharaohs to give thanks to the gods who had helped them in their success. Making magnificent buildings and statues, obelisks and temples gave pharaohs the opportunity to show off their wealth and generosity to their own people, as well as to visitors from other lands.


Ancient India

Harappans

The Harappans were in power in the Indus Valley civilizations until 1900 BCE, at which point the Aryans came and began to take over the region.


Aryans

1500-500 BCE
The Aryans migrated to the region now known as India from 1500 BCE to 1300 BCE. They came from central Asia (present day Russia). The Aryans are credited for much of the Indian culture.


By: Matthew Whiting, Waleed Cherif, Jeremy Lim, and Eric Benenson