Section 1!

Defining Climate!


  • Climatology- Is the study of earth climate and the factors that cause past, present, and future climatic changes.
  1. Climate describes the long-term weather patterns of an area.
  2. Climate also describes annual variations temperature, precipitation, wind , and other weather variables.


  • Normals- Are standard values for a location.
  • The data are averaged on a monthly or annual based for a period of at least 30 years to determine the normals.
  • While climate describes the average weather condition for a region, normals apply only to the specific place where the meteorological data were collected.

Cause of Climate!

  • Climate- The weather condition prevailing in an area in general or long period.
  1. There several regions for such climatic variations, including differences in latitude, topography, closeness of lakes and oceans, availability of moisture, global wind patterns, ocean currents, and air masses.


Topographic Effects!

  • Many coastal are warmer in winter and cooler in the summer than inland areas at similar latitudes.
  • Also temperatures in the lower atmosphere generally decrease with altitude.

Air masses!

  • Two of the main causes of weather are the movement and interaction of air masses.