(Chapter 2, Section 1)
Our Solar System (The Planets: Neighbors in Space.)
- The sun, at the center of our galaxy, is 109x bigger than our planet earth, and is also made up of gases.
- The 8 planets (plus pluto) are the 9 biggest objects in our solar system. Our inner planets are: Mars, Earth, Venus, and mercury. Our outer planets are Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. The object separating these two sections is the Asteroid Belt.
- The closer the plant is to the sun, the hotter that planet is.
- Earth is the only planet with liquid water. 70% of our Earth is covered with water.
- The outer planets are the Gas Planets, which are each like their own little galaxy.
Our Solar System (Asteroids, Comets, and Meteoroids)
- Asteroids are small, irregularly shaped, planet-like objects. They're usually found between Mars and Jupiter in a region called the Asteroid Belt.
- Comets are made of icy dust particles and frozen gases. They look like bright balls with long, feathery tails .
- Meteoroids are pieces of space debris- chunks of rock and iron. They don't usually reach the Earth's surface because of the hot gravitational field.
- Meteorites are space rocks that have collided into Earth's very surface. They can cause lots of damage and devastation when that make contact.
Getting to Know Earth (Water, Land, and Air)
- Oceans, lakes, and rivers make up part of the earth called the hydrosphere.
- About 30% of the Earth's surface is land, and it makes up the lithosphere.
- The atmosphere, made up of gases, that extends 6,000 miles above the Earth's surface.
- The biosphere is the type of Earth that is able to support life. (While space stations need mechanical life support systems, they are not a part of the biosphere.)
Getting to know Earth (Landforms)
- Landforms are the natural features on the Earth's surface.
- Four major landforms are mountains, hills, plateaus, and plains. (Others include valleys canyons, basins.)
- Underwater landforms include plains, mountains, valleys, and deep trenches.
- Only two continents stand alone, Australia and Antartica. All the other's are connected in some form.
- Part of a continent that extends underwater is called a continental shelf. (Some are narrow, some are wide.)
Getting to Know Earth (Earth's Height's and Depth's)
- The highest point in Earth is South Asia at the top of Mount Everest. (29,035ft above sea level)
- The lowest land point on the Earth is the shore of The Dead Sea in Southwest Asia. (1,349ft below sea level)
- Mariana Trench is a long narrow under water canyon in the Pacific Ocean near Guam. (35,827ft deep)