Wetlands

Leann Sessoms

Definition of a wetland

Land that is filled or soaked with water at least part of the year

Facts about wetlands

  • Covers 12.8 squared kilometers
  • More than 1/3 of endangered species rely on wetlands for survival
  • Covers 6% of the Earth's surface

Uses for wetlands

  • Habitat for endangered wildlife
  • Holds and collects flood waters
  • Naturally filers water

Types of wetlands

  1. Bog
  2. Swamp
  3. Fen
  4. Marsh

Animals found in wetlands

  • Beavers
  • Insects
  • Red deer
  • Alligators
  • Newts
  • Shrimp
  • Snakes
  • Turtles

Plants found in wetlands

  • Reeds
  • Wildflowers
  • Shrubs
  • Trees (only in swamps)
  • Grasses

Facts about Bogs

  • Has soil low in nutrients
  • Peat forms in bogs
  • Has some carnivorous plants

Facts about Swamps

  • Has deep water
  • Only type that has trees
  • Soil is poorly drained and water-logged

Facts about Fens

  • Also forms peat
  • Has high nutrient levels
  • Able to support a complex plant and animal community

Facts about Marshes

  • The amount of water can change with seasons
  • Has soil with low mineral content
  • Has shallow water

Wetland Destruction

Natural Threats

  • Hurricanes and other storms
  • Droughts
  • Sea level rise
  • Subsidence
  • Erosion
Human Threats

  • Drainage
  • Mining
  • Logging
  • Construction
  • Air and water pollutants

Preservation and Conservation

  • Don't fill in wetlands
  • Limit the amount of chemicals you put in your yard
  • Plant plants around any wetlands to act as a buffer

Sources