Human Body Systems

Kimberly Jackson

Digestive System

Function- Converts food into simpler molecules that can be used by cells; absorbs food; eliminates wastes. The entire process takes between 24 and 33 hours.
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Organs in the Digestive System

Mouth- First stoop in the disassembly of food. Mechanical digestion= chewing; Chemical digestion= enzymes found in saliva.

Esophagus- Muscular tube connecting the mouth to the stomach.

Stomach- Muscular pouch like organ where involuntary muscular churning and chemical digestion occurs.

Small Intestine- Narrow muscular tube where digestion of food is completed with the help of enzymes secreted by the liver and pancreas.

Large Intestines- Muscular tube where water and salts are absorbed; Material spends 18-24 hours here.

Anus- Helps waste exit the body.

Liver- Produces bile, a substance that helps break down fats.

Pancreas- Secretes enzymes to help break down carbohydrates, proteins, and fats.

Gallbladder- Stores bile produced by the liver.


-Digestion of large food molecules:

Compounds are contained in the food we eat, these compounds are not all suitable for human tissues. Our bodies break down and reassemble these compounds so that we can use them.

In order for food molecules to be absorbed, they have to be small enough. Larger food molecules need to be broken down into smaller molecules in order for absorption.

-Enzymes in digestion:

Enzymes break down large food molecules into smaller ones, speed up the process of digestion by lowering the activation energy for the reaction. Enzymes work at body temperature.

Two major disorders

Ulcers- Damage to the lining of the stomach due to bacterial infection. Signs include; burning pains in stomach, weight loss, nausea/vomiting, bloating, burping, and heartburn. Ulcers can be treated with antibiotics, which relive problems long enough for minor ulcers to heal.

Acid Reflux- Heartburn/acid ingestion causes stomach acid to become backed up into the esophagus and creates a burning sensation/ sour taste in mouth. Signs include; heartburn, chest pain, difficulty swallowing, dry cough, and sore/dry throat. Treatments range from over the counter remedies to surgery.

Excretory System

Function- eliminates waste products from the body.
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Two major disorders

Kidney Stones- hard masses that form in the urinary tract from crystals that have separated from the urine. Signs include extreme pain, cramping in the back and lower abdomen, nausea and vomiting. Most kidney stones can be passed by increasing daily fluid intake to two to three quarts of water per day. If stones are too large to pass with an increase in water consumption, surgery may be needed to break the stones.

Urethritis- an inflammation of the urethra caused by a bacterial or viral infection. Signs of urethritis vary between genders. Signs in men include blood in the urine or semen, burning during urination, discharge, frequent urination, pain and swelling of the penis and pain during ejaculation. Signs in women include abdominal pain, pain during urination, fever, chills, frequent urination, pain in the pelvis and vaginal discharge. Can be treated with antibiotics and some pain medications.

Circulatory System

Function- Brings oxygen, nutrients, and hormones to cells; fights infections; removes cell wastes; regulates body temperature.

Blood enter the heart through two large veins (inferior and superior vena cava).

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Organs in the Circulatory system

arteries- thick outer layer, elastic fibers, thick wall, thick layers of elastic and muscle fibers, narrow lumen.

capillaries- one cell layer thick wall, pores, very narrow lumen.

veins- thin layers of elastic and muscle fibers, thin walls, thin outer layer, wide lumen

plasma- mixture of proteins, enzymes, nutrients, wastes, hormones, and gases.

erythrocytes- red blood cells, production of RBC's. Formed through cell transformations.

leukocytes- white blood cells, production of WBC's. Begins when some types of haemocytoblast differentiate into 3 types of committed cells.

platelets- small fragments of bone marrow cells. not really classified as cells, stops bleeding, promotes blood clotting, dissolves blood clots, digests/destroys bacteria, secretes chemicals, and secretes growth factors.

Two major disorders

Aortic Aneurysm- weakening of the aorta, blood vessel wall causes an aneurysm. Aneurysms occur in the abdominal area, but can also occur higher in the chest. Signs include; back pain, chest pain, and abdominal pain. Treatments range from watchful waiting to surgery.

Deep vein thrombosis- occurs when blood clots form in one of the deep veins. Signs include; leg pain, swelling, skin discoloration, shortness of breath, and pain with deep breathing. Prevention of a growing clot, a clot breaking off, recurring blood clots, and avoiding lasting complications can prevent this disease.

Respiratory System

Function- provides oxygen needed for cellular respiration and removes carbon dioxide from the body.

Oxygen enters the blood from lungs, Carbon dioxide is expelled out of the blood into lungs. Blood serves to transport both gases. Oxygen is carried to cells. Carbon dioxide is carried away from cells.

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Organs in the Respiratory System

Alveoli- sacs at the end of the bronchiole where oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged. Great numbers of alveoli increase surface area for gas exchange. Walls made of single layer cells and capillaries make diffusion distance small, which allows rapid gas exchange. Capillaries have low oxygen and high concentrations, allowing oxygen to diffuse into blood, and carbon dioxide diffuse out of blood. Cell walls secrete fluid allowing gasses to dissolve.

Two major disorders

Pneumonia- Inflammation of the lung caused by bacteria. Signs include; fever, headaches, cough and chest pains. Treated with antibiotics.

Tuberculosis- an infectious disease, signs include fever night sweats, weight loss, and spitting blood. Also treated by various combinations of antibiotics.

Immune System

Function- helps protect the body from disease; collects fluid lost from blood vessels and return it to the circulatory system.

Organs in the immune system

Pathogen- agent that causes disease.

Active immunity- immunity that occurs after the body responds to an antigen.

Passive immunity- immunity that occurs without the body undergoing an immune response.

Antigen- protein maker that helps the immune system identify foreign particles.

Antibody- protein produced by B cells that aids in the destruction of pathogens.


Blocks specific metabolic pathways in bacteria. Bacteria are very different t to human cells so human cells are not affected. Viruses require host cells to carry metabolic processes for them so that antibiotics cannot be used to treat viruses. Harming the virus would harm the human cells.

Major disorders

Graves disease- the releasing of excessing amounts of thyroid hormones into the blood. Signs include weight loss, nervousness, irritability, rapid heart rate, and weakness. Treated by removal of the thyroid gland.

HIV/AIDS- hiv is a virus that is spread through body fluids that affect specific cells of the immune system, hiv leads to aids. Signs include fever, fatigue, swollen lymph nodes, diarrhea, weight loss, cough shortness of breath. Treatments include various medicines.

Endocrine System

Function- Controls growth, development, and metabolism; Maintains homeostasis.

Homeostasis- the tendency toward a relatively stable equilibrium between interdependent elements.

Negative Feedback- compare current conditions to set ranges, and counteracts change.

Type I Diabetes/ Type II Diabetes

Type I diabetes- body is not producing insulin, usually diagnosed in children. Signs include increased thirst, frequent urination, bedwetting, extreme hunger, unintended weight loss, mode changes, fatigue, weakness, and blurred vision. Treated with insulin injections.

Type II diabetes- body is not using insulin right. Signs include frequent urination, extreme hunger, weight loss, fatigue, weakness, and blurred vision. Treatment, healthy eating, and physical activity.

Skeletal System

Function- supports the body; protects internal organs; allows movement; stores mineral reserves; provides blood cell formation.
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Organs in the Skeletal system

Bones- produce blood cells, red marrow--- produce red and white blood cells, yellow marrow--- consist of stored fat.

Ligaments- tough band of tissue attaching one bone to another.


Tendons- thick bands of tissue connecting muscle to bone.


Two major disorders

Arthritis- body attacks itself and damages joints. Treatments gear towards managing pain and modulating the immune system.

Tendinitis- Overuse or injury of the tendons results in inflammation and pain. Signs include pain, and swelling. Treatments, resting, ice, and modifying activities.

Muscular System

Function- works with skeletal and nervous system to produce movement. Helps circulate blood through the body.

Action potential from a motor neuron triggers the release of Ca^2+ ions. Calcium ions expose the myosin heads by binding to a blocking molecule causing it to move myosin heads for a cross-bridge with actin binding sites. The movement of the myosin heads cause the actin filaments to slide over the other myosin filament. Shortening the length of the sarcomere. Repeating of the hydrolysis of ATP causes the skeletal muscle to contract.

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Types of Muscle

Cardiac- makes up your heart, is adapted to generate and conduct electrical impulses.

Skeletal- attaches to and moves bones (voluntary muscle)

Smooth- found on walls of internal organs and blood vessels (involuntary muscle)

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Two major disorders

Strain- tear in the muscle resulting from excessive use. Bleeding inside the muscle can result in pain and swelling. Ice packs will help stop bleeding and reduce swelling.

Talipes (flat feet)- weakening of leg muscles that support the arch, downward pressure on the foot eventually flattens out the arches. Condition can be helped by exercise, massage and corrective shoes.

Nervous System

Function- recognizes and coordinates the body's response to changes in its internal and external environments.
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Organs in the Nervous system

Cerebral Hemispheres-


Brain Stem-


Central Nervous system- made up of the brain and spinal cord and coordinates your body's activities (Brain, Brain Stem, Spinal Cord)

Peripheral Nervous system- made up of the nerves whig carries messages to and from the central nervous system. (Somatic never system, Automatic nerve system)

Two major disorders

Epilepsy- another term of seizures. High fevers can trigger seizures. Epilepsy can occur at any age. Can be controlled by medication, may require surgery.

Aphasia- the loss of speech, can occur after a stroke or brain injury.

Reproductive System

Function- produces reproductive cells in; in females nurtures and protects developing embryo

The basic function of spermatogenesis is to turn each one of the diploid spermatogonium into four haploid sperm cells. Oogenesis involves the formation of haploid cells from an original diploid cell, called a primary oocyte, through meiosis. The unequal cytokinesis that occurs has the advantage of providing the ovum with a much greater amount of cytoplasm and stored food than if an equal division were to occur.

Two major disorders

Endometriosis - a condition involving colonization of the abdominal/pelvic cavity with islands of endometrial tissue. Signs include ongoing pain in the pelvis and lower back. Treatments are usual medication or surgery.

Pelvic inflammatory disease- the female abdominal cavity has a direct anatomical path from the outside world via the female reproductive tract. Signs include pain or tenderness in the stomach, or pain in upper right abdomen. Can be treated with antibiotics.