THE CAVALIER CHRONICLE
Regular monthly meetings
Until further notice, the CKCSC of Greater Atlanta will not be holding regular monthly meetings due to COVID-19. We do not want to put any of our club members and guests in a potential situation where they may come in contact with the virus. In the foreseeable future, it appears that APRIL, MAY, JUNE will likely remain cancelled and the board will revisit the July and forward meetings in June.
We will hold board meetings via teleconference to discuss the COVID -19 situation and how it will continue to affect our club meetings and events. Additionally, this will be a time to discuss the workings for the February 2020 show. A meeting notice for the March board meeting will be sent out when a date is determined.
2020 BOARD NOMINATIONS
Club officers for 2020 - 2021
As per our constitution and by-laws, floor nominations are only accepted at the April regular meeting. Since we will not be holding an April meeting, floor nominations will be accepted as follows:
a) Nominations from the floor will be accepted via email to the club secretary until APRIL 8 (which would be the normal meeting date).
b) The person you are nominating must also send an email to the club secretary by APRIL 8 stating that they will accept the nomination. IF a nomination is received and no acceptance email from the nominee is received, that nomination will NOT be considered a valid nomination. It is the responsibility of the nominee to send the email to the club secretary.
c) Nominations will be closed on APRIL 8 at 5 pm for all positions.
If there are nominations and acceptances received, there will be a mail-in ballot to the Club Secretary. If this is the case, further instructions will be emailed to regular club members. Only regular & honorary members (non-associates, juniors) may cast a vote.
If no nominations and acceptances are received by April 8, the slate of officers that the Nominating Committee submitted will be voted into office in May via a conference call and 1 vote cast by the club secretary. Regular members will receive a call-in number to attend the May meeting so we have a quorum of 5 to cast this vote.
The slate submitted for 2020 - 2021 officers is as follows:
President: Linda Whitmire
Vice President: Paula Ayers
Secretary: Sharon Utych
Treasurer: Carol Land
Director: Brenda Martz
Director: Mark Fitchpatrick
Director: Carolyn Powell
CKCSC of Greater Atlanta
CORONA-VIRUS, YOU, AND YOUR DOG
ADVISORY DOCUMENT: UPDATED AS OF MARCH 16, 2020
The New Coronavirus and Companion Animals - Advice for WSAVA Members An outbreak of pneumonia in people in China has been drawing worldwide concern about a new coronavirus (termed SARS-Cov-2) as a global public health risk. The new coronavirus was identified after notification of pneumonia cases of unknown cause in December 2019, diagnosed initially in the Chinese city of Wuhan, capital of Hubei province. Thousands of cases have already been detected in China and the disease has been exported by travelers to many other countries. Initially, there was no clear evidence for person-to-person transmission. In the last few weeks, however, person-to-person spread of the SARS-Cov-2 has been confirmed, as shown by new cases of viral pneumonia among family members and health care providers through close contact. In January 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) temporarily named the new virus as 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). However, on February 11th it was definitively named SARS-Cov-2 and the disease caused by this virus was named ‘Coronavirus Disease 2019’ (abbreviated “COVID-19”). While more cases of the disease are being reported on a daily basis in China and elsewhere, the exact source of the outbreak is still not known. Currently, there is no evidence suggesting a specific animal host as a virus reservoir, and further investigations are ongoing. Coronaviruses belong to the family Coronaviridae. Alpha- and beta-coronaviruses usually infect mammals, while gamma and delta coronaviruses usually infect birds and fish. Canine coronavirus, which can cause mild diarrhea and feline coronavirus, which can cause feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), are both alpha-coronaviruses. These coronaviruses are not associated with the current coronavirus outbreak. Until the appearance of SARS-Cov-2, which belongs to the beta-coronaviruses, there were only six known coronaviruses capable of infecting humans and causing respiratory disease, including the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus SARS-CoV (identified in 2002/2003) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus MERS-CoV (identified in 2012). SARS-Cov-2 is genetically more related to SARS-CoV than MERS-CoV, but both are beta-coronaviruses with their origins in bats. While it is not known whether COVID-19 will behave the same way as SARS and MERS, the information from both of these earlier coronaviruses can inform recommendations concerning COVID-19. In the last few weeks, rapid progress had been made in the identification of viral etiology, isolation of the infectious virus and the development of diagnostic tools. However, there are still many important questions that remain to be answered. The most up-to-date information and advice on human infection can be found in the following websites: • World Health Organization (WHO) (www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus2019) • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/about/index.html) The most up-to-date information related to animal health can be found on the following website: • World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) www.oie.int/scientific-expertise/specificinformation-and-recommendations/questions-and-answers-on-2019novel-coronavirus/ 2 In response to this outbreak, the WSAVA Scientific and One Health Committees have prepared the following list of frequently asked questions for the WSAVA membership in collaboration with One Health interested individuals around the globe. We are aware of issues related to pet abandonment in China and hope that this information will be of use to veterinarians around the world in dealing with the concerns of their clients. How can I help protect myself and my clinic staff? Visit the COVID-19 Prevention and Treatment page to learn about how to protect yourself from respiratory illnesses, like COVID-19 (https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/about/preventiontreatment.html) Can COVID-19 infect pets? Currently, there is limited evidence that companion animals can be infected with SARS-Cov-2 and no evidence that pet dogs or cats can be a source of infection to other animals or to humans. This is a rapidly evolving situation and information will be updated as it becomes available. Should I avoid contact with pets or other animals if I am sick with COVID-19? The CDC recommends the following: “You should restrict contact with pets and other animals while you are sick with COVID-19, just like you would around other people. Although there have not been reports of pets or other animals becoming sick with COVID-19, it is still recommended that people sick with COVID-19 limit contact with animals until more information is known about the virus. When possible, have another member of your household care for your animals while you are sick. If you are sick with COVID-19, avoid contact with your pet, including petting, snuggling, being kissed or licked, and sharing food. If you must care for your pet or be around animals while you are sick, wash your hands before and after you interact with pets and wear a facemask.” Please check for new updates on CDC’s website at www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/faq.html#2019-nCoV-and-animals If my pet has been in contact with someone who is sick from COVID-19, can it spread the disease to other people? While we do not yet know for sure, there is limited evidence that companion animals can be infected with or spread SARS-Cov-2. We also do not know if they could get sick from this new coronavirus. Additionally, there is currently no evidence that companion animals could be a source of infection to people. This is a rapidly evolving situation and information will be updated as it becomes available. What should I do if my pet develops an unexplained illness and was around a person with documented COVID-19 infection? We don’t yet know if companion animals can get infected by SARS-Cov-2 or sick with COVID-19. If your pet develops an unexplained illness and has been exposed to a person with COVID-19, talk to the public health official working with the person with COVID-19. If your area has a public health 3 veterinarian, the public health official will consult with them or another appropriate official. If the state public health veterinarian, or other public health official, advises you to take your pet to a veterinary clinic, call your veterinary clinic before you go to let them know that you are bringing a sick pet that has been exposed to a person with COVID-19. This will allow the clinic time to prepare an isolation area. Do not take the animal to a veterinary clinic unless you are instructed to do so by a public health official. What are the concerns regarding pets that have been in contact with people infected with this virus? While COVID-19 seems to have emerged from an animal source, it is now spreading from person-toperson. Person-to-person spread is thought to occur mainly via respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs or sneezes. At this time, it’s unclear how easily or sustainably this virus is spreading between people. Learn what is known about the spread of newly emerged coronaviruses. Importantly, there is limited evidence that companion animals including pets such as dogs and cats, can become infected with SARS-Cov-2. Although there is no evidence that pets play a role in the epidemiology of COVID-19, strict hand hygiene should be maintained by the entire clinical team throughout the veterinary interaction, especially if dealing with an animal that has been in contact with an infected person. What should be done with pets in areas where the virus is active? Currently there is limited evidence that pets can be infected with this new coronavirus. Although there have not been reports of pets or other animals becoming sick with COVID-19, until we know more, pet owners should avoid contact with animals they are unfamiliar with and always wash their hands before and after they interact with animals. If owners are sick with COVID-19, they should avoid contact with animals in their household, including petting, snuggling, being kissed or licked, and sharing food. If they need to care for their pet or be around animals while they are sick, they should wash their hands before and after they interact with them and wear a facemask. This is a rapidly evolving situation and information will be updated as it becomes available. Should veterinarians start to vaccinate dogs against canine coronavirus because of the risk of SARSCov-2? The canine coronavirus vaccines available in some global markets are intended to protect against enteric coronavirus infection and are NOT licensed for protection against respiratory infections. Veterinarians should NOT use such vaccines in the face of the current outbreak thinking that there may be some form of cross-protection against COVID-19. There is absolutely no evidence that vaccinating dogs with commercially available vaccines will provide cross-protection against the infection by COVID-19 since the enteric and respiratory viruses are distinctly different variants of coronavirus. No vaccines are currently available in any market for respiratory coronavirus infection in the dog. [Information from the WSAVA Vaccination Guidelines Group]. What is the WSAVA’s response to reports that a dog has been ‘infected’ with COVID-19 in Hong 4 Reports from Hong Kong indicated that the pet dog of an infected patient had tested “weakly positive” to COVID-19 after routine testing. The dog, which is showing no relevant clinical signs, was removed from the household, which was the possible source of contamination, on 26 February and it is currently under quarantine. Retesting was performed after the dog was put under quarantine to determine whether the dog was in fact infected or whether its mouth and nose were being contaminated with COVID-19 virus from the household. The Hong Kong SAR Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department (AFCD) reported that nasal, oral, rectal and fecal samples from the dog have been tested. On February 26 and 28, oral and nasal swabs were positive, while on March 2, only nasal swabs showed positive results. The rectal and fecal samples tested negative on all three occasions. Testing at both the government veterinary laboratory (AFCD) and the WHO accredited diagnostic human CoV laboratory at Hong Kong University (HKU) detected a low viral load in the nasal and oral swabs. Both laboratories used the real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method and the results indicate that there was a small quantity of COVID-19 viral RNA in the samples. It does not, however, indicate whether the samples contain intact virus particles which are infectious, or just fragments of the RNA, which are not contagious. According to the AFCD, the “weak positive” result from the nasal sample taken 5 days after the dog was removed from the possible source of contamination suggested that the dog had a low-level of infection and that this was likely to be a case of human-to-animal transmission. Gene sequencing of the COVID-19 virus from the dog, and it's close contact persons who were confirmed infected, showed that the viral sequences were very similar, which indicates that the virus likely spread from the infected persons to the dog. A blood sample was also taken from the dog on March 3 for serological testing and the result was negative. The AFCD states that the negative serological test result should not be interpreted to suggest that the dog was not infected with the virus. It is known in some asymptomatic or mild cases of human infections with other types of coronavirus that antibodies may not always develop. It is also not uncommon in the earlier stages of infections to have a negative serological result as it often takes 14 days or more for measurable levels of antibodies to be detected. Another blood sample will be taken later for further testing and AFCD will continue to monitor the dog. The AFCD emphasized that there is still currently no evidence that pet animals can be a source of infection of COVID-19 or that they can become sick. Apart from maintaining good hygiene practices, pet owners need not be overly concerned and under no circumstances should they abandon their pets. WSAVA urges pet owners in areas where there are known human cases of COVID-19 to continue to follow the information in its Advisory, including washing their hands when interacting with their pets and, if sick, wearing face masks around them. The situation is rapidly evolving, and information will be updated as it becomes available. Note: WSAVA recognizes that not all recommendations will apply to all areas or all regions at all times, depending on the epidemiological risk and risk mitigation in the area. WSAVA encourages veterinarians to keep in close contact with and follow the directions of, their local veterinary authority. The work of the WSAVA’s One Health Committee is kindly supported by Purina Institute.
10 Myths and Misperceptions About Homemade Dog Food
NutritionwiseBy Catherine Lane, May 2009, Updated February 2015
It’s been years since the first melamine-related pet food recall, and during that time, more dog lovers than ever have decided to turn to homemade diets—cooked or raw—as insurance against potential problems with commercial products. Is a homemade diet really insurance? Yes, it can be, assuming it’s nutritionally balanced and takes into account your dog’s breed, age, weight, activity and overall physiology.
As a consulting canine nutrition specialist, I analyze hundreds of diets annually, and see firsthand what people are actually feeding their dogs. Here are a few common misperceptions I’ve encountered and my responses to them, which I hope will help Bark readers in their own efforts to improve their dogs’ nutrition. (The following applies to adult dogs in good health; if your dog is a puppy, a senior or has health issues, be sure to consult with your veterinarian before making dietary changes.)
1. “Using fresh, wholesome foods will, over time, meet my dog’s needs if I vary the diet enough.”
There is some basis for this point of view; fresh foods are indeed more bioavailable than those made with highly processed ingredients. In addition, when an owner prepares food at home, she knows exactly what’s going into it. However, when analyzed, even diets based on wholesome, fresh ingredients can still come up low in various vitamins and minerals.
Bone up on your dog’s actual nutrient requirements by doing a bit of research; this means reading widely, speaking with nutritionists and vets (holistic, conventional and specialists), and starting to think in terms of both ingredients and nutrient needs. (See sidebar for a short “starter list” of online information sources.)
2. “A multivitamin added to the food will cover any gaps.”
The question here is this: Which multi, and with which diet? Any unsupplemented home-prepared diet will be low in some nutrients and adequate or high in others. But because there is no standard formulation for human multivitamins and they can vary greatly in what they include, just tossing one in the dish is not the answer.
Choosing an all-purpose multi made specifically for dogs doesn’t necessarily solve the problem either. These usually contain very low levels of nutrients because it’s assumed they will be added to commercial food, and so are unlikely to provide enough supplementation to round out a homemade diet. This is why “balanced” is not just a buzzword; it’s a valid and essential aspect of proper nutrition. Once you understand your dog’s nutritional needs, work out what her diet actually contains and then add what’s missing.
3. “I’m adding yogurt to my dog’s food daily so she’s getting enough calcium.”
Dogs require fairly high levels of calcium, and yogurt absolutely won’t cut it. Here’s a quick example: My own 75-pound dog has a daily requirement of 1,840 mgs of calcium, and since I use quite a bit of fiber in his diet in the form of brown rice, I want to offset any absorption issues and ensure that he gets about 2,000 mgs per day, or 14,000 mgs per week. His weekly diet alone—turkey, liver, sardines, brown rice, ground lamb and acorn squash—only provides 1,750 mgs. That means I need to add over 12,000 mgs of calcium; in other words, more than 40 cups of plain yogurt.
Calcium supplementation is always necessary unless you are feeding raw bones. I recommend using a commercial carbonate or citrate form of calcium, or an eggshell crushed into a fine powder—one teaspoon of this powder (about 5.5 grams) equals roughly 2,200 mgs of calcium carbonate. To use eggshells, rinse them well and then bake for about 10 minutes at 300 degrees; use a small grinder to make the powder. Bone meal can be used if there is also a need to add phosphorus, but many homemade diets supply plenty of this mineral.
4. “I eat carefully and read human nutrition books—I just follow similar principles with my dog.”
This is a very common assumption but unfortunately, it isn’t accurate. Current nutritional guidelines for humans—who are omnivores—emphasize foods and ratios that may not be ideal for dogs. Ensure dietary balance by aiming for about 30 to 35 percent of total calories from fats, 30 percent from protein and the balance from complex carbohydrates. (Percentages are guidelines, but are not as accurate as evaluating the gram content of a diet; this is another place where it pays to do the math.)
5. “My dog had some loose stools, so cutting way down on fiber will correct that.”
Fiber is an important dietary component, and the type of fiber you use counts as much or more than the amount (fiber is commonly used to address both constipation and diarrhea problems).
If your dog has loose stools on a homemade diet, switch to bland meals or cut back on the amount of food by about 30 percent for a day or so, and watch for other symptoms that might indicate an illness or parasites. If the problem doesn’t clear up within a few days, consult your veterinarian.
6. “I use a lot of fresh veggies in my dog’s diet because they offer so many health benefits.”
Vegetables’ role in the canine diet has been a topic of considerable discussion. One school of thought holds that adding them is inappropriate, since dogs are carnivores and do not need plant matter. Others emphasize the need for both veggies and fruit to boost not only essential nutrients but also phytochemicals that may provide protection from disease.
Unlike cats, who are obligate carnivores (animals who must get their primary nutrition from meat), dogs’ systems are more accommodating, and vegetables offer a lot in the way of health benefits. But here again, we are faced with the all-important questions, “How much and what type?” Some vegetables have elements that may interfere with the absorption of minerals, and others, such as those in the nightshade family—tomatoes, white potatoes, eggplants and peppers—contain solanine, an alkaloid that some theorize aggravates inflammation. Use veggies judiciously: Limit dark leafy greens—which contain high levels of oxalate and may contribute to bladder stones in dogs who are prone to them—and be conservative with nightshades. Green beans and carrots are usually safe bets, and pumpkin and sweet potatoes are well tolerated (unlike white potatoes, sweet potatoes are not in the nightshade family, but are high in calories and starch).
7. “Dogs don’t require carbs, and grains are bad for them.”
This is one of the most often-quoted—and misunderstood!—of all the ideas here. It seems to come from National Research Council studies, which conclude that dogs have no strict requirement for dietary carbohydrates. Briefly put, canines can metabolize adequate glucose (blood sugar) from a diet consisting of fat and protein alone.
All this means is that lack of carbohydrates will not lead to an identifiable deficiency in the way that a lack of Vitamin C in humans will produce scurvy. It does not, however, mean that a carb-free diet is a good idea. To complicate this issue, many people use the terms “carbohydrate” and “grain” interchangeably, thinking they’re following a no-carb diet because they have eliminated grains.
Complex carbohydrates provide energy and aid in healthy gastrointestinal function, and some portion of your dog’s homemade food should consist of brown rice, wild rice, quinoa, legumes (which also add protein) or starchy vegetables. Try to keep levels consistent so if need be, you can make adjustments.
8. “A raw diet is always superior to one that’s cooked—dogs fed raw do not get sick.”
Raw diets vary in type; some seek nutrient balance while others utilize a “prey model” approach, which mimics the diet of wolves or wild dogs as closely as possible. These diets have become hugely popular over the past decade, and to be sure, there are dogs who absolutely thrive on them. But some do not. As with a cooked diet, it’s essential to ensure proper formulation. Raw diets have drawbacks as well as benefits, and may not be suitable for every dog.
If you are planning to try a raw approach, do your homework. Research both within and outside the various raw communities that exist on the Internet. Talk to veterinarians and nutritionists, read widely, and take your time.
9. “Raw diets are a dangerous fad. I’d be scared to try it.”
For every home feeder who sings the praises of a raw diet, I hear another one say she wouldn’t dare use foods that aren’t cooked. It’s as much a mistake to assume that raw is uniformly dangerous as it is to insist it’s a viable solution for every dog. I often use raw diets for dogs with allergies, or proactively where there are no problems and the owner has expressed an interest. One great advantage of this approach is ease of preparation. Consider your own needs and lifestyle as well as your dog’s when making this all-important decision about feeding.
10. “Dogs of all ages can be fed a similar diet, as long as it’s made up of whole foods.”
This can be a dangerous misconception. Puppies’ diets need to have at least twice, and in some cases, as much as five times the nutrient content of an adult dog’s. But although they require more nutrients, hyper-nutrition can be a serious problem, particularly in giant breeds. At the other end of the age range, though it was long thought that reducing dietary protein was in the best interest of seniors, current findings suggest they may actually require more protein than adult dogs.
If you are new to home feeding, learn as much as you can about canine nutrition before introducing your puppy or senior to a homemade diet. Better yet, work with an experienced nutrition consultant who can help you formulate and adjust the diet according to your dog’s growth needs. For seniors in particular, have a full geriatric screening run at least semi-annually to ensure that liver and kidney values are within normal range; aberrations in these numbers often indicate a need for changes in dietary management. Though poor nutrition causes problems no matter what the dog’s age, growing dogs and seniors pose greater challenges to the novice home feeder than do adult dogs, and mistakes made here can have serious consequences.
So, here’s the take-away message: A homemade diet remains a popular and potentially very healthy alternative or complement to the many premium foods on the market. However, research and planning are essential. Gather information from a wide range of sources, exercise a little caution, start slowly and don’t forget to check in with your vet or nutrition specialist regularly to be sure the diet hasn’t inadvertently drifted out of balance. Any diet on which your dog fails to thrive is a poor choice. If you see that your dog is not doing well on what you’re feeding him, consider a change. He will thank you for it.
Important: Many veterinarians, while acknowledging that pet food recalls and the poor quality of some pet foods are causes for concern, still feel that homemade diets, when fed exclusively, may result in nutritional imbalances and vitamin/mineral deficiencies that may pose threats to canine health. Therefore, if you choose to feed your dog a homemade diet, it is important that you understand and provide what your dog needs to stay healthy; veterinary nutritionists can assist in developing suitable homemade diets. While caution was taken to give safe recommendations and accurate instructions in this article, it is impossible to predict an individual dog’s reaction to any food or ingredient. Readers should consult their vets and use personal judgment when applying this information to their own dogs’ diets.
RECIPE OF THE MONTH
These colder nights have us dreaming about soups and stews, which lead us directly to this doggie style stew created by Happy and Yummy. The story of the stew begins the way a lot of homemade dog food recipes do - Happy and Yummy creator Michelle’s pup got sick and she had to get creative with her meal making in order to right their upset stomach. The bug might have gone away, but the kitchen bug remained, and now their pups (adorable Finnegan and Buford) often receive homemade meals whether they require it or not! Michelle knew she wanted to create something she could whip up once a week and serve all week (another common thread we found across our recipe digging) and settled on a stew that that only takes about 15 minutes of prep and then 5-8 hours in a slow cooker. She says it stays fresh in the fridge for a couple of days and thaws beautifully while she makes human food the other nights of the week. She hilariously writes, “Be warned that it smells really good, and once you make it the first time, the dogs will stalk the crock pot and leave piles of drool on the floor in front of it while it finishes cooking. I recommend a strategically placed washable rug to address this situation to keep you from stepping in a giant puddle.” The stew is named after the sweet pup she originally made it for, Scooby, who lost his battle with cancer over a year ago. We’re so glad he’s forever immortalized with this delicious stew, sharing some of his favorite ingredients with puppies far and wide!
- 1 1/2 cups brown rice
- 2 carrots, shredded
- 1 tablespoon olive oil
- 1 zucchini, shredded
- 3 pounds ground turkey
- 1/2 cup peas, canned or frozen (if avoiding pea protein use green beans)
- 3 cups baby spinach, chopped
- Place ingredients in a slow cooker in the order listed, covering chicken completely with vegetables
- Cook 5 hours on high or 8 hours on low
- Remove from slow cooker, shred chicken and stir into rice and veggie mixture until evenly distributed.
- Store covered in the fridge for up to three days or freeze in single-serve portions.
- Pro Tip: Mix in some bone broth powder into the stew. It is so healthy and dogs love the taste.
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THE CAVALIER CHRONICLE
CAVALIER KING CHARLES SPANIEL CLUB OF GREATER ATLANTA