Language arts 8th grade
What we've learned by Courtney Landry
Chapter 1 The sentence - subject and predicate , kinds of sentences
Ex. Sean was chosen captain of his soccer team.
A sentence fragment is a word group that looks like a sentence but does not contain both a subject and a verb or does not express a complete thought
Ex. was a well-known ragtime pianist - Did not express a complete thought
A subject tells whom or what the sentence is about.
Ex. where are your mittens,kris ? (your mittens- subject)
The complete subject consists of all the words that tell whom or what the sentence is about. The simple subject is part of the complete subject.
Ex. The man from next door borrowed my phone and did not return it. (The man from next door- complete subject)
The simple subject is the main word or word group that tells whom or what the sentence is about.
Ex. Joey arrived at the dance. (simple- joey)
The predicate of a sentence tells something about the subject.
Ex. The ball is pink. (predicate - pink)
The complete predicate consists of a verb and all the words that describe the verb and a complete its meaning.
The simple predicate or verb, is the main word or word group that tells something about the subject
Ex. These books are available in the media center. (are- complete)
A compound subject consist of two or more connected subjects that have the same verb.
Keyshia and todd worked a jigsaw puzzle.
A compound verb consists of two or more verbs that have the same subject.
EX.you can leave now or wait for the others
A declarative sentence makes a statement and ends with a period.
EX.Lani wondered why the sky is blue.
An imperative sentence gives a command or makes a request. Most imperative sentences end with a period. A strong command ends with an exclamation point.
An interrogative sentence asks a question an ends with a question mark.
EX. how do diamonds form?
An exclamatory sentence shows excitement or strong feelings and ends with an exclamation point.
EX. what a sight the sunset is!
Chapter 2 Parts of speech overview - Noun, Pronoun, Adjective
A compound noun is made up of two or more words as a single noun.
A common noun names any one of a group of persons, places, things. or ideas.
A proper noun names a particular person, place, thing, or idea.
EX. The New York Times
A concrete noun names a person, place or thing that can be perceived by one or more of the senses.
An abstract noun names an idea, a feeling, a quality, or, a characteristic
A collective noun is a word that names a group.
A pronoun is a word used in place of one or more nouns or pronouns.
EX. When Kelly saw the signal, she pointed it out to enrigue.
A personal pronoun refers to the one speaking, the one spoken to, or the one spoken about.
EX. I, ME , My ,MINE
A reflexive pronoun refers to the subject and functions as a complement or an object of a preposition
A intensive pronoun emphasizes a noun or another pronoun.
A demonstrative pronoun points out a person, a place, a thing, or an idea.
An interrogative pronoun introduces a question.
A reflexive pronoun introduces a subordinate clause.
An indefinite pronoun refers to a person, a place. a thing, or an idea that may or may not be specifically named.
An adjective is a word used to modify a noun or a pronoun.
EX. stone house
Chapter 3 -parts of speech overview - verb, adverb, preposition, conjunction, interjection
An action verb is a verb that expresses either physical or mental activity.
An adverb is a word that modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb.
EX. The couple was married nearby.
A preposition is a word that shows the relationship of a noun or pronoun, called the object of the preposition, to another word.
EX. The package under the tree is mine.
A conjunction is a word used to join words or groups of words.
coordinating conjunction join word or groups of words that are used in the way.
An interjection is a word used to express emotion.
Chapter 4 - complement - Direct and indirect objects, subject complements
EX .Marlene brought sandwiches
A direct object is a noun, or word group that tells who or what receives the action of the verb.
EX.Our history class built a model of the alamo.
An indirect object is a noun, pronoun, or word group that sometimes appears in sentences containing direct objects
EX. sarita brought us a chess set.
A subject complement is a word or word group that completes the meaning of a linking verb and that identifies or describes the subject.
EX.The lemonade tastes sour
A predicate nominative is a word or word group that is in the predicate and that identifies the subject or refers to it.
EX. My aunts nieces is she
A predicate adjective is an adjective that is in the predicate and that describes the subject.
EX. This chili tastes spicy.
Chapter 6 -The Clause - Independent clauses and subordinate clauses
EX. writers gathered at the home of gertrude stein - clause.
An independent (or main) clause expresses a complete thought and can stand by myself as a complete sentence.
EX. The sun set an hour ago. - independent clause
A subordinate (or dependent) clause does not express a complete thought and cannot stand by itself as a complete sentence.
EX. That I want.
An adjective clause is a subordinate clause that modifies a noun or a pronoun.
EX.That one, which is my favorite, was bought in kenya.
An adverb clause is a subordinate clause that modifies a verb, an adjective, or an adverb.
EX. you may sit wherever you wish.
A noun clause is a subordinate clause that is used as a noun
Chapter 7: Sentence Structure
Simple- The lady gave me a new look.
Compound Sentence: Has 2 or more independents and no subordinate.
Compound- According to my mom alcohol is bad.
Complex-compound- I feel like i should play at school play.
Complex Sentences: One independent and 2 or more subordinate.
Complex-compound- I feel like i should play at school play.
Compound-Complex Sentences: Has 2 or more subordinate and one subordinate clause
Compound- According to my mom alcohol is bad.
Complex- My sister loves when i play with her.
Chapter 8 -agreement - subject, and verb, pronoun, and antecedent
When a word takes no indicate whether the word is singular or plural.
When a word refers to one person, place, thing, or idea it is singular in number. When a word refers to more than one person, place, thing, or idea, it is plural in number.
Agreement of Subject and Verb:
A verb should agree in number with its subject.
Singular subjects take singular verbs. (dolphin-eats)
Plural subjects take plural verb. (senators-oppose)
In a verb phrase, the first helping verb agrees in number with the subject.(He is building a bird feeder.)-The singular helping verb is agrees with the plural subject they.
Problems in Agreement:
The number of a subject is not changed by a phrase or clause following the subject. (The distance between the two posts is eight feet.)
The following indefinite pronouns are singular: anybody, anyone, anything, each, either, everybody, everyone, everything, neither, nobody, nothing, no one, one, somebody, someone, and something.
(Everyone was invited to the celebration)
Pronouns like each and one are frequently followed by prepositional phrases. Remember that, for these pronouns, the verb agrees with the subject of the sentence, not with a word in a prepositional phrase.
The following indefinite pronouns are plural: both, few, many, and several.
(Both of the apples are good.)
The indefinite pronouns all, any, more, most, none, and some may be singular or plural, depending on their meaning in a sentence.
Often, the subject in a prepositional phrase that follows the pronoun indicates whether the pronoun is singular or plural. Usually, if the object of the preposition is singular, the pronoun is singular. If the object is plural, the pronoun usually is plural.
Ex.)All of the fruit looks ripe.
Subjects joined by and usually take a plural verb.
Singular subjects joined by or or nor take a singular verb. Plural subjects joined by or or nor take a plural verb.
When a singular subject and a plural subject are joined by or or nor, the verb agrees with the subject nearer the verb.
Ex.)Neither the manager nor the employees want to close the store early.
Other Problems in Agreement:
When the subject follows the verb, find the subject and make sure the verb agrees with it.
Example) Here is my seat-Here are our seats
The contractions don’t and doesn’t should agree with their subjects.
Chapter 9: Principal parts, Regular and irregular verbs, Tense, Voice
Irregular- Blake has gone to play a little poker.
Verb Tense: The tense of a verb indicates the time or where the action is being stated in the sentence.
Verb Tense- My cousin has saved enough money to buy a boat.
Consistency of tense: Do not change needlessly from on etence to another.
Consistency- We decided that in order to play we had to tryout.
Passive Voice: A verb in active voice expresses an action done by its subject.
Passive- The lady in a pink dress decided to bring the cake.
Active Voice: Expresses an action done to its subject.
Active- Annie broke my window last night.
Parts Of A Verb, the four principal parts of a verb are the base form, The present participle, the past, and the past participle.
Regular Verbs form its past and past participle by adding -d or -ed to the base form.
Chapter 10: Using Pronouns Correctly
Case: Is a form of a noun or a pronoun that takes the place to show it's relationship to other words in a sentence.
Case- Many of Carrie Underwood's fans waited outside.
The Nominative Case- Many of Carrie Underwood's fans waited outside.
A predicative nominative should be in the nominative case.
Nominative- Did you realize the popcorn stand outside
The Objective Case: The direct object should be in the objective case.
An object of a preposition should be in the objective case.
Direct- My best friend decided to make a gift basket .
Possessive Case: the pronoun is in the possessive case.
Appositives: A pronoun used as an appositive is in the same case as the word to which it refers to.
Chapter 11: Using Modifers Correctly
Modifier- Ramona makes beautiful drawings.
Adverb: Adverbs normally end with -ly but not all do.
Adverb- What a lovely dress.
Adjective : They also end with -ly so you usually cant tell if its a adverb or adjective.
Adjective- Jaguars run fast.
Linking Verbs: They are followed by a predicate adjective.
Linking Verbs- The girl's story was very interesting.
Good: Is an adjective, this is used to modify a noun or a pronoun.
Good- You sound like you need help anyway.
Well: Use well to modify a verb.
Irregular Comparison: The comparison and superlative degree.
Superlative Forms: Use the comparative degree when comparing two or more things.
Else: Use other or else when comparing on member of a group or more.
Double Comparing: Avoid using double comparison.
Double Negatives: Avoid using double negatives
Prepositional Phrases: Consist of a phrase, a noun, or pronoun.
Participle Phrases: Consist of a verb form.
Adjective Clauses: Is a subordinate clause that edifies a noun or pronoun.
Well-I always do well in volleyball.
Irregular Comparison- Good, Better, Well, Worse
Superlative Forms- The first time i tried it was hard the second time wasen't.
Else- We weren't letting anyone else get in the door.
Prepositional Phrase- This book is by Judy Gloom Jr.
Participle Phrase- I was yelling for help in my dream.
Adjective- The book that we read was about shoes.