Electricity and Circuits

By: Sarrah and Divya


Electricity is a natural force that we harness for our energy needs. some of the natural forces include wind, water, sun and fossil fuels. Electricity is also the flow of moving electrons.

Atoms are made up of electrons, protons and neutrons which have both positive and negative charges. Everything you touch, see and feel is matter, and all matter consist of atoms. Electrons are negatively charged subatomic particles that are on the shells of atoms. They are the only part of the atom that is in motion they orbit around the nucleus.

Current electricity is dynamic electricity which allows for all of our electronics to function. Current electricity is existent because it allows for charges to constantly flow. This form of electricity can only flow in a circuit and the circuit has to be closed and looped with a metal wire. for example if a circuit has a break through the middle the flow of electrons would stop resulting in no current electricity.

Static electricity is when there is a build-up of the opposite charged particles separated with an insulator. Static electricity will remain until the opposite charged particles find away to mix and balance out the object.

Ohms Laws

Ohms law is the relationship between voltage (V), current (I) in the ideal conductor.

The potential difference (voltage) across an ideal conductor is proportional to the current through it. (DC Circuits)

  • V= Voltage
  • I= Current Flow
  • R= Resistance

The relationship between voltage, current flow and resistance is that they are all part of Ohm's Law. With two pieces of the information you can find the other. For example, current multiplied resistance is voltage. Same for when you are trying to find voltage and resistance.

  • IxR=V
  • V/R=I
  • V/I=R

When V increases and the R is constant the current flow increases.

When R increases and V is constant the current flow decreases.


The five parts of a single series circuit are

  • Wire
  • Battery
  • Resistor
  • Light Bulb
  • Switch

The role of a resistor is slow down the flow and speed of the electrons in a circuit.

The main difference between a series and a parallel circuit is that in a series circuits there is only one path(branches) and parallel circuits have many. As a result of this if something happens to the flow of the electricity in the series circuit the whole circuit will not work but, if something happens to the electricity in one of the "branches" of the parallel circuit only that branch will be affected. In a series circuit as there is an increase in load the resistance will become greater. Although, for a parallel circuit once the load increases the resistance decreases.

The way the electrons are detained in the chemical bonds between atoms and the way they are in motion as a electric current is unlike in conductors and insulators. A conductor like metal lets their electrons easily move between atoms. Whereas an insulator like plastic has electrons that are packed tightly into atomic bonds so electricity cannot pass through it. The only way electricity can pass through an insulator is if the electricity is of high voltage but that would result in it the insulator burning.

Conventional current is a current that comes out of the positive terminal and out the negative, whereas actual current flow comes out of the negative terminal and into the positive terminal.