Photosynthesis and Respiration

In a Cell

Photosynthesis

A process that happens in the chloroplast produce glucose and oxygen from carbon dioxide, water, and light energy through 3 stages.


Stage 1, energy is captured from sunlight brings the reactant light energy into play. However, it starts by having a electron that gets excited and jumps out of the thylakoid(structure in chloroplast) which is then transfered to electrons in the chlorophyll. This is replaced with split water molecules and o2 is made in the splitting of water molecules.


Stage 2, the reactant light energy is converted to a usable form of energy, chemical energy. Which is held in ATP and NADPH(energy carrier molecules). This is electrons go through the electron transport chain which ends up making ATP to power the third stage


Stage 1 and 2 are know as the light stages.


Then the 3rd stage, energy stored powers the making of organic compounds with the use of Carbon Dioxide. This known as the Calvin Cycle which starts with 5-Carbon Compound then gets a molecule of carbon dioxide to make a 6 carbon compound. Then to get the organic compounds is made by the splitting of the carbon molecule to form a 3 carbon sugar. The sugar carbon molecules are then used to make the organic compound so the energy can be stored and the rest is used to keep the process ongoing.

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Cellular Respiration

This is the process occurring in the mitochondria that harvests energy in organic compounds to make ATP, using glucose and oxygen to make carbon dioxide and water. This can be done with or without with oxygen, but to make more ATP you need oxygen. This process is made from 2 stages.


Stage 1, Glucose is converted to pyruvate making small amounts of ATP and NADPH. This i called Glycolysis, where each 3 carbon molecule is converted to a 3-Carbon pyruvate, then 4 ATP and NADH molecules are produced.


Stage 2, this is where it depends on if the oxygen is present. If oxygen is present, it undergoes the kreb's cycle which the main process is to make NADH to power the electron transport chain with FADH2. Then, the NADH and FADH2 goes through the electron transport chain to produce at most 34 molecules of ATP at most.


Now, if there is no oxygen it is considered fermentation, where the electron are not transfered from NADH so NAD+ cannot be recycled, simply meaning there is very little ATP produced. There are two types of fermentation, Lactic Acid and Alcohol fermentation.

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Photosynthesis/Cellular Respiration

Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration are alike and different in many ways. One way they compliment each other by having the products of photosynthesis be the reactants of cellular respiration. Cellular Respiration need the glucose and oxygen to produce the carbon Dioxide and Water from photosynthesis for it be achieved, and the opposite for photosynthesis.


However, they are also different in many ways, photosynthesis occurs in plants only in the chloroplast. While, cellular respiration occurs in both in plant and animals occurring in the mitochondria. Photosynthesis needs light as well not just the reactants and products it and cellular respiration share. Photosynthesis is independent producing energy for itself being self-sufficient. While, cellular respiration needs energy and is dependent.