Mining And Fracking

By Raymond Patrick

Surface Mining

Surface mining is the process of removing minerals that are closer to the surface of the Earth. This is done to find ore deposits that are found on the surface.

Subsurface Mining

Subsurface mining is the process used to remove energy sources from deep inside of the Earth to be used as energy.

Open-Pit Mining

Open-pit mining refers to size of the ore deposits as being large. A large machine is used to remove anything that is not a part of the deposits and sets it apart. Environmentally, open-pit mining can drain the land of soil, which leads to loss of vegetation.
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Strip Mining

Strip mining is similar to open-pit mining, except that literal strips are dug inside of the ground to extract resources. Environmentally, strip mining can cause harm to or kill mine workers.
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Mountaintop Removal Mining

Mountaintop removal mining is literally removing the tops of mountains and is often described as being strip mining on a way larger scale. It is done by clearing space, blowing of the mountaintops, and digging for the coal. Mountain areas have been totally flattened as a result of this mining.
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Slope Mining

Slope mining works by a conveyor belt type of system that extracts the coal. Depending on the size different tools may be used to get the coal. Landscapes are destroyed as a result of this method.
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Drift Mining

Drift mining is done by making an incision into a mountain and inserting a seam that extracts the minerals from the mountain. Eastern parts of America tend to use this method commonly. This can cause pollution to environments.
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Shaft Mining

Literally, large vertical shafts are inserted inside of the ground to extract ores and minerals of various sizes. This method of mining is particularly very risky and can absolutely devastate landscapes.
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Fracking is a process that involves drilling and a violent shaking of the Earth in order to obtain the fossil fuel natural gas. First, fracking fluid is created from water, sand, and chemicals. Next, the fluid is injected into the ground through a pipe. The high pressure then causes the rocks to break and release natural gas. The chemicals can contaminate the groundwater, which can harm third world countries.
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