Papal Monarchy

Since the 15th century, popes of the Catholic Church claimed supremacy of the affairs of the church. During the reform of the Papacy, an official was granted by the church. Secular or lay, rulers usually both chose nominees to church offices a practice known as lay investiture.They also gained territories in central Italy that came to be known as the Papal States. This control kept the popes involved in political matters.
The Church became increasingly in the feudal system. Their Pope was Gregory VII, he was elected in 1073. He got in a conflict with Henry IV, the king of Germany in 1075 because Henry was trying to take over. The struggle between Henry IV and Gregory VII which is known as the Investiture Controversy. This lead to Gregory issuing a decree forbidding high ranking clerics from receiving their investiture from lay leaders.

New Religious Order

In the second half of the 11th century, religious enthusiasm increased in Europe. Both men and women joined these religious orders that arose. One of the most important orders was the Cistercian order. It was founded in 1098 by a group of monks, it spread rapidly through France and the rest of Europe. They played a major role in developing the new spiritual model for many people in Europe. The monks introduced the religion to St. Bernard of Clairvaux. After that, St. Bernard became the new leader.