Types of mining and fracking

surface mining vs subsurface mining

surface mining: near the ground surface

subsurface mining: deep in the ground

surface mining

surface mining includes three types of mining ,removing soil and rocky minerals.

strip mining: excavate and uncover the material.

open pit: extracting minerals from the earth from an open pit.

mountaintop removal: remove from the summit of a mountain.

environment effects:

air pollution

soil erosion

habitat destruction

Subsurface mining

MIners create either a horizontal tunnel(adit) or a vertical tunnel(a shaft). Surface mining does not create the visible changes like surface mining does.

Less hazardous than surface mining. One problem is that underground mines sometime collapse.


  • Fracking is the process of drilling and injecting fluid into the ground at a high pressure in order to fracture shale rocks to release natural gas inside.
  • Up to 600 chemicals are used in fracking fluid, including known toxins such as mercury.
  • Use tons of water.
  • During this process, methane gas and toxic chemicals leach out from the system and contaminate nearby groundwater.
  • Contaminated well water is used for drinking water for nearby cities and towns, causing health problems.
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