Lyndon B. Johnson

1965-1969

How Johnson Became President

- Former Vice President to JFK when he was shot

- Sworn in as president on a waiting plane and flown back to Washington with Kennedy's body

- Kept most of Kennedy's team

- Dignified and efficient transition between presidents

- Swore to continue to practice Kennedy's policies

- Election of 1964: Johnson v. Goldwater

The Great Society

- The Great Society was Johnson's domestic policy

- Economic and welfare measures aimed at transforming the American way of life

- The Other America by Michael Harrington shed light on the poverty situation in America

- Civil Rights Act of 1964: banned racial discrimination in most private facilities open to the public (helped to end segregation in schools)

- Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC): eliminated discrimination in hiring

24th Amendment

- 1964

- Prohibited states from requiring a poll tax as a condition for voting in federal elections

Tonkin Gulf Resolution and Vietnam War

- Tonkin Gulf Resolution (AKA: Southeast Asia Resolution) was a joint resolution that the US in response to the Gulf of Tonkin Incident (August 7, 1964)

- LBJ did not initially want to send troops to South Vietnam (US involvement in Vietnam War debated between military and LBJ)

- Attacked North Vietnam after attacks were made on the US army

- "Operation Rolling Thunder": wholesale bombing of North Vietnam and NLF-held territory in South Vietnam

Johnson's Civil Rights

Civil Rights Act of 1964

- Gave the federal government more muscle to enforce school-desegregation orders and to prohibit racial discrimination in all kinds of public accommodations and employment

- Problem of voting rights remained after this act was passed

Voting Rights Act of 1965

- August 6, 1965

- Outlawed literacy tests

- Sent federal voter registrars into several southern states

- Climaxed a century of awful abuse and robust resurgence for African-Americans in the south

- Did not end discrimination/oppression overnight but it had a significant impact

1968: a "Watershed" Year

- January 23: North Korea seizes US US Navy Ship, Pueblo

- North Vietnam launched the Tet Offensive which was a turning point of the Vietnam War

- March 16: American soldiers massacre 347 civilians at My Lai

- March 31: LBJ announces that he will not run for another term

- April 4: MLK Jr. is assassinated by James Earl Ray

- June 5: Robert F. Kennedy was assassinated

- August 20: Czechoslovakia is invaded by Russians and the Warsaw Pact forces to crush liberal regime