MORAL REASONING

Kohlberg's

PRECONVENTIONAL

Stage 1 and Stage 2

Stage 1 "Egocentric" - awareness of reward and punishment


Stage 2 "Reciprocity" - awareness of personal gain and/or mutual gain


Most elementary students

Some middle school students

A few high school students

CONVENTIONAL

Stage 3 and Stage 4

Stage 3 "Good Child" - awareness of social approval and/or keeping the peace


Stage 4 "Law and Order" - awareness of social order and/or respect for authority


Most middle school and high school students

Many adults

POSTCONVENTIONAL

Stage 5 and Stage 6

Stage 5 "Social Contract" - awareness of flexible rules and/or social consensus


Stage 6 "Principles and Conscience" - awareness of dignity/worth and/or abstract universal values


Stage 5 - some adults

Stage 6 - a few adults