Exam Study Guide


IPS Lab Safety Notes

For Every Lab

  • goggles must be kept OVER YOUR EYES until Mr. Leeds says to put them away **even if you are already finished and cleaned up**
  • report ALL accidents/spills to Mr. Leeds immediately
  • try your best to use common sense

In Case of Emergency

  • Nurse: ext: 2828

Safety equipment in classroom

  1. fire extinguisher
  2. fire blanket
  3. eye wash/shower


  • never taste chemicals
  • Always WAFT liquids to detect odor
  • avoid touching chemicals
  • always wash hands with soap and water after lab
  • if chemicals touch skin: flush skin with water for 1 minute AND notify Mr. Leeds


  • hot glass and cold glass look the same
  • never use chipped or broken glass -tell Mr. Leeds and dispose of broken glass in proper trash
  • never use force to remove or insert glass

Alcohol Burners

  • roll up sleeves, put UP long hair, NOT just pull back (or you cannot do lab)
  • never walk away from a lit burner
  • never point the open end of a hot test tube at yourself or someone else
  • do not look down into a test tube/beaker while it is being heated
  • make sure burner is sapped and flame is out when done

End of Experiment

  • make certain that burner is out of one was used
  • keep goggles on (over eyes) until Mr. Leeds says to put them away

Volume Notes

unit of measurement= cm3 (cubic centimeters)

volume= LxWxH

standard unit of length=meter (m)

1 centimeter (1cm)= 0.01m


100cm= 1m

Volume of Liquids

-use a graduated cylinder to measure volume

*Always check the intervals or scale

units= mil liters (mL) OR cm3


-read from bottom of meniscus

Single Pan Balance Notes

  1. check that pan is clean and dry
  2. always "zero" balance before EACH massing

*push all riders to zero (left)

*use adjustment knob if needed

3. Never switch pan

4. Pick up balance by red bar only

5. don't zero balance when done

Lab: React in a Bag

A + liquid = hot (Exothermic Reaction= out/heat)

B + liquid = cold (Endothermic Reaction= takes it away)

A + B + liquid = gas

Red Liquid or Phenol Red

  • used as a pH indicator
  • below 7 turns yellow
  • above 8 turns pink

Solid A

- calcium chloride (calcium + chlorine)

-mildly acidic

- hydrotropic: attracted to water (absorbs water)


  1. canned vegetables (keeps them from getting mushy)
  2. electrolyte in sport drinks
  3. flavored pickles

Solid B

  • sodium bicarbonate (baking soda)
  • hot acidic


  1. baking
  2. cat litter
  3. toothpaste
  4. laundry detergent

Phenol Red

Calcium Chloride

Baking Soda

Lab: Heating Baking Soda


control group: unheated test tube

experimental group: heated test tube

indicator: tea (showed you that that heated test tube wasn't baking soda)

variables: something you want to measure

independent variable: causes a change in the dependent variable

dependent variable: color of the tea

control factors:

  1. same type of tea
  2. same amount of baking soda
  3. same amount of tea
  4. same stirring time
  5. same size test tube

Box Questions

1. Why do you think baking soda is used in baking?

It releases gas when heated, which helps dough/batter to rise.

3. How many cubic centimeters of water are required to fill a graduated cylinder to the 500.0-mL mark?

50 cm3

4. rectangular box A has a greater volume than rectangular box B but the length of box A is less than the length of box B. How is this possible?

Box A has more space then box B.

5. Adding a stone to a graduated cylinder containing 25.0 cm3 of water raises the water level in the cylinder to the 32.0 cm3 mark. What is the volume of the stone?

7 cm3

6. a. how many 1 cm cubes will be needed to build a cube that measures 2 cm along each edge?

8 cubes

b. How many 1 cm cubes will be needed to build a cube that measures 3 cm along each edge?

27 cubes

c. what is te volume, in cubic centimeters, of each of the cubes in a and b?

8 cm3 + 27 cm3

7. One rectangular box is 30 cm long, 15 cm wind, and 10 cm deep. A second rectangular box is 25 cm long, 16 cm wide and 15 cm deep. Which box has the larger volume?

The second rectangular box

8. figure A shoes a cone-sharped graduate used for measuring the volume of liquids. Why are the divisions not equally spaced?

As the surface increases the depth decreases