Religions & Belief Systems
People's beliefs. How this affect their lives.
There are three main idea of Hinduism:
Reincarnation: the soul is reborn in a newly created life
Karma: Every action brings out certain results
Dharma: A set of rules one must follow
The religion of Hinduism originated in Northern India, near the river Indus, about 4000years ago and is the world's oldest existing religion. Hinduism is considered the world’s oldest continually practiced religion, although it is actually composed of many different practices with similar features. It began in the Indus Valley region of the Indian subcontinent as a mixture of the Brahmanic beliefs of the Aryan-speakers and local, indigenous beliefs. Although the largest population of practitioners have remained in India -- over 800 million -- it has spread throughout the rest of the world.
- Hindus believe in a one, all-pervasive Supreme Being who is both immanent and transcendent, both Creator and Unmanifest Reality.
- Hindus believe in the divinity of the four Vedas, the world's most ancient scripture, and venerate the Agamas as equally revealed. These primordial hymns are God's word and the bedrock of Sanatana Dharma, the eternal religion.
- Hindus believe that the universe undergoes endless cycles of creation, preservation and dissolution.
- Hindus believe in karma, the law of cause and effect by which each individual creates his own destiny by his thoughts, words and deeds.
- Hindus believe that the soul reincarnates, evolving through many births until all karmas have been resolved, and moksha, liberation from the cycle of rebirth, is attained. Not a single soul will be deprived of this destiny.
- Hindus believe that divine beings exist in unseen worlds and that temple worship, rituals, sacraments and personal devotionals create a communion with these devas and Gods.
- Hindus believe that an enlightened master, or satguru, is essential to know the Transcendent Absolute, as are personal discipline, good conduct, purification, pilgrimage, self-inquiry, meditation and surrender in God.
- Hindus believe that all life is sacred, to be loved and revered, and therefore practice ahimsa, noninjury, in thought, word and deed.
- Hindus believe that no religion teaches the only way to salvation above all others, but that all genuine paths are facets of God's Light, deserving tolerance and understanding. Hindus code of conduct contains of ten rules 1.) Noninjury, Ahimsa, 2.) Truthfulness, Satya, 3.) Nonstealing, Asteya, 4.) Divine Conduct, Brahmacharya, 5.) Patience, Kshama, 6.) Steadfastness, Dhriti, 7.) Compassion, Daya, 8.) Honesty, Arjava, 9.) Moderate Appetite, Mitahara, 10.) Purity, Saucha these 10 rules help maintain piece.
3) To undertake the training to avoid sensual misconduct. This precept is often mistranslated or misinterpreted as relating only to sexual misconduct but it covers any overindulgence in any sensual pleasure such as gluttony as well as misconduct of a sexual nature.
4) To undertake the training to refrain from false speech. As well as avoiding lying and deceiving, this precept covers slander as well as speech which is not beneficial to the welfare of others.
5) To undertake the training to abstain from substances which cause intoxication and heedlessness.This precept is in a special category as it does not infer any intrinsic evil in, say, alcohol itself but indulgence in such a substance could be the cause of breaking the other four precepts.
These are the basic precepts expected as a day to day training of any lay Buddhist. On special holy days, many Buddhists, especially those following the Theravada tradition, would observe three additional precepts with a strengthening of the third precept to be observing strict celibacy. The additional precepts are:
6) To abstain from taking food at inappropriate times. This would mean following the tradition of Theravadin monks and not eating from noon one day until sunrise the next.
7) To abstain from dancing, singing, music and entertainments as well as refraining from the use of perfumes, ornaments and other items used to adorn or beautify the person. Again, this and the next rule.
8) To undertake the training to abstain from using high or luxurious beds are rules regularly adopted by members of the Sangha and are followed by the layperson on special occasions.
-Iman, faith in one God
-Salah,five daily prayers
-Sawn, fasting during the month of Ramadan
-Hahj, pilgrimage to Mecca.