Language Arts 7th Grade

What I've learned this year! By Ginny Broussard

Chapter 1- The Sentence (Subject and Predicate, Kinds of sentences)

A sentence is a word or word group that contains a subject and a verb and expresses a complete thought. A sentence fragment is a group of words that looks like a sentence but does not contain both a subject and a verb or does not express a complete thought. The subject tells whom or what the sentence is about. The simple subject is the main word or word group that tells whom or what the sentence is about.

The complete subject is the main word or word group that tells whom or what the sentence is about. The predicate of a sentence tells something about the subject. The simple predicate, or verb, is the main word or word group that tells something about the subject. The complete predicate consists of a verb and all the words that describe the verb and complete its meaning. A compound subject consist of two or more subjects that joined by a conjunction and that have the same verb. A compound verb consists of two or more verbs that are joined by a conjunction and that have the same subject. A declarative sentence makes a statement end with a period. An imperative sentence gives a command or makes a request. A string command ends with an exclamation point. An interrogative sentence asks a question and ends with a question mark. An exclamatory sentence shows excitement or expresses strong feelings and ends with an exclamation point.


Sentence Example- She won the prize at the race.

Sentence Fragment Example- Winning the prize. (Does NOT have a subject)

Subject Example- Kelsey is the one who gave the girl the prize.

Simple Subject Example- Is the winner of the race present?

Complete Subject Example- The four girls that came early.

Predicate Example- The phone rang.

Simple Predicate (Verb) Example- Ginny Broussard broke the vase.

Complete Predicate- Ginny Broussard broke the vase.

Compound Subject Example- Emily and Kelsey are my best friends.

Compound Verb Example- The rain has fallen for days and is still falling.

Declarative Sentence Example- I was born in Louisiana.

Imperative Sentence Example- Don't you ever do that again.

Interrogative Sentence Example- Why did you go to the park without me?

Exclamatory Sentence Example- I love my birthday party!

Chapter 2- Parts of Speech (Noun, Pronoun, and Adjective)

A noun is a word or word group that is used to name a person, a place, a thing, or an idea. A compound noun is a single noun made up of two or more word used together. A proper noun names a particular person, place, thing, or idea and begins with a capital letter. A common noun names any one of a group of persons, places, things, or ideas and is generally not capitalized. A concrete noun names a person, place, or thing that can be perceived by one or more of the senses (slight, hearing, taste, touch, smell). An abstract noun names an idea, a feeling, a quality, or a characteristic. A collective noun is a word that names a group. A pronoun is a word that is used in place of one or more nouns or pronouns. A personal pronoun refers to the one speaking (first person), the one spoken to (second person), or the one spoken about (third person). A reflexive pronoun refers to the subject and is necessary to the meaning of the sentence. An intensive pronoun emphasizes a noun or another pronoun and is unnecessary to the meaning of the sentence. A demonstrative pronoun points out a person, a place, a thing, or an idea. An interrogative pronoun introduces a question. An indefinite pronoun refers to a person, place, thing, or an idea that may or may not be specifically named. A relative pronoun introduces a subordinate clause. An adjective is a word that is used to modify a noun or a pronoun. The most commonly used adjectives are a, an, and the. These adjectives are called articles. A and an are called indefinite articles because they refer to any member of a general group. The is called the definite article because it refers to someone or something in particular. This, that, these, and those can be used both as adjectives and as pronouns. When they modify a noun r a pronoun, they are called demonstrative adjectives. When they are used alone, the are called demonstrative pronouns. A proper adjective is formed from a proper noun.


Noun- We went to the beach.

Compound Noun- Thar is my favorite place to go!

Proper Noun- We went to Orlando for the summer.

Common Noun- The girl liked the beach.

Concrete Noun- We ate pop sickles on the beach.

Abstract Noun- We love the beach so much!

Collective Noun- They had a class of fish in the ocean.

Pronoun- Did she pick up her pool toys?

Antecedent- Walking the dog on the beach is really fun when you do it with a friend.

Personal Pronoun- I went to the mall after we went swimming.

Reflexive Pronoun- I enjoyed myself on the beach.

Intensive Pronoun- I myself went to the pool.

Demonstrative Pronoun- This is the best vacation ever!

Interrogative Pronoun- What did you say about the park?

Indefinite Pronoun- All of the park was full of people

Relative Pronoun- Ginny, Kelsey, and Emily, who went to the beach this summer, loves to go swimming.

Adjective- She was nice when I went t her house.

Articles- A cat meowed.

Indefinite Articles- An animal is a very strong thing.

Definite Article- I went to the park.

Demonstrative Adjectives- This is my house, and that is his house.

Demonstrative Pronouns- These keys are a lot bigger that those keys.

Proper Adjectives- The Thanksgiving dinner was amazing.

Chapter 3- Parts of Speech Overview (Verb, Adverb, Preposition, Conjunction, Interjection)

A verb is a word that expresses action or a state of being. An action verb is a verb that expresses either physical or mental activity. A linking verb is a verb that expresses a state of being. A linking verb connects, or links, the subject to a word or word group that identifies or describes the subject. A helping verb (auxiliary verb) helps the main verb express action or a state of being. A verb phrase contains one main verb and one or more helping verbs. A transitive verb is a verb that expresses an action directed toward a person, a place, a thing, or an idea. An intransitive verb expresses action (or tells something about the subject) without the action passing to a receiver, or object. An adverb is a word that modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb. A preposition is a word that shows the relationship of a noun or pronoun to another word. A prepositional phrase includes a preposition, a noun or a pronoun called the object of the preposition, and any modifiers in the object. A conjunction is a word that joins words or word groups. (1) Coordinating conjunctions join words or word groups that are used in the same way. (2) Correlative conjunctions are pairs of conjunctions that join words or word groups that are used in the same way. An interjection is a word that expresses emotion.

Verb- We were walking in the park.

Action Verb- The cat plays with the ball.

Linking Verb- She is her grandmother.

Helping Verb- She has been going to the park everyday.

Verb Phrase- I can speak many languages.

Transitive Verb- She greeted the men and women at the park.

Intransitive Verb- The girl stopped.

Adverb- The girl ran fast.

Preposition- I went through the store.

Prepositional Phrase- I went under the bridge.

Object of the Preposition- We went to the park.

Conjunction- We would have gone but it was too packed.

(1)Coordinating Conjunctions- Ginny or Kelsey will go to the park.

(2)Correlative Conjunctions- Both sisters and Ginny went to the park.

Interjection- Wow! That was a good throw!

Chapter 4- Complements (Direct and Indirect Objects, Subject Complements)

A complement is a word or word group that completes the meaning of a verb. A direct object is a noun, pronoun, or word group, that tells who or what receives the action of the verb. An indirect object is a noun, pronoun, or word group that sometimes appears in sentences containing direct objects. A subject complement is a word or word group in the predicate that identifies or describes the subject. A predicate nominative is a word or word group in the predict that identifies the subject. A predicate adjective is an adjective that is in the predicate and that described the subject.

Complement- He home is important.

Direct Object- She worked the ball with her hands.

Indirect Object- The cop gave her the ticket.

Subject Complement- The racetrack looks slippery.

Predicate Nominative- A phone is a valuable tool.

Predicate Adjective- Cold water tastes great on a cold day.

Chapter 5- The Phrase (Prepositional and Verbal Phrases)

A phrase is a group of related words that is used as a single part of speech and that does not contain both a verb and its subject. A prepositional phrase includes a preposition, the object of the preposition, and any modifiers of that object. An adjective phrase modifies a noun or a pronoun. An adverb phrase modifies a verb, an adjective, or an adverb. A participle is a verb form that can be used as an adjective. (1)Present participles end in -ing. (2)Past participles usually end in -d or -ed. Some past participles are formed irregularly. A participial phrase consists of a participle together with its modifiers and complements. The entire phrase is used as an adjective. An infinitive is a verb form that can be used as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb. Most infinitives begin with to. An infinitive phrase consist of an infinitive together with its modifiers and complements. The entire phrase may be used as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb.

Phrase- On the paper

Prepositional Phrase- We went into the old house.

Adjective Phrase- We downloaded the song by Adele.

Adverb Phrase- We found a cat at the old house.

(1)Present Participles- We were burning the wood.

(2)Past Participles- We skated on the frozen pond.

Participle Phrase- As we walked, we saw a rat.

Infinitive- I am going to shop for new shoes.

Infinitive Phrase- To be a good dancer takes a lot of hard work.

Chapter 6- The Clause (Independent and Subordinate Clauses)

A clause is a word group that contains a verb and its subject and that is used as a sentence or as part of a sentence. A clause that does not express a complete thought is called an independent clause. A clause that does not make sense by itself is called a subordinate clause. An independent (or main) clause expresses a complete thought and can stand by itself in a sentence. A subordinate (or dependent) clause does not express a complete thought and cannot stand by itself as a complete sentence. An adjective clause is a subordinate clause that modifies a noun or a pronoun.

Independent (or main) Clause- My mother drove me to school.

Subordinate (or dependent) Clause- If the dress is too long, we will hem it.

Adjective Clause- I want a bicycle that I can ride over through ground.

Adverb Clause- Because Kelsey was brave, she battled the lion.

Chapter 7- Kinds of Sentence Structure (Simple, Compound, Complex, and Compound-Complex Sentences)

A simple sentence contains one independent clause and no subordinate clause. A compound sentence contains two or more independent clauses. A complex sentence contains one independent clause and one subordinate clause. A compound-complex sentence contains two or more independent clauses and at least one subordinate clause.

Simple Sentence- The good rain(S) will help(V) the farmers.

Compound Sentence- Ginny wrote about her aunt.

Complex Sentence- Kelsey, Ginny, Emily, and Victoria, who are all best friends, went to the park together last weekend.

Compound-Complex- When we go on vacation, our neighbors mow our lawn and collect our mail.

Chapter 8- Agreement (Subject and Verb, Pronoun and Antecedent)

When a word refers to one person, place thing, or idea, it is singular in number. When a word prefers to more than one, it is plural in number. A collective noun is singular in form but names a group of persons, animals, or things. A pronoun usually refers to a noun or another pronoun called its antecedent.

Singular- The person was very loud.

Plural- The people were very loud.

Antecedent- I love our fluffy puppy.

Chapter 9- Using Verbs Correctly (Principal Parts, Regular and Irregular Verbs, Tense, Voice)

The principal parts of the verb are the base form, the present participle, the past, and the past participle. A regular verb forms its past and past participle by adding -d or -ed to the base form. An irregular verb forms its past and past participle in some way other than by adding -d or -ed to the base form. The tense of the verb indicates the time of the action or the state of being that it is expressed by the verb. A verb in the active voice expresses an action done by its subject. A verb in the passive voice expresses an action done to its subject.

Base Form- Draw

Present Participle- [is] drawing

Past- Drew

Past Participle- [have] drawn

Regular Verb- Ginny draws trampolines on her free time.

Irregular Verb- Ginny is drawing trampolines on her free time.

Tense- Yesterday, Kelsey served a lot of food.

Active Voice- Kelsey is serving a lot of food.

Passive Voice- Kelsey was serving a lot food.

Chapter 10- Using Pronouns Correctly (Nominative and Objective Case Forms)

Case is the form that a noun or pronoun takes to show its relationship to other words in a sentence. The subject of the verb should be in nominative case. A predicate nominative should be in the nominative case. Direct objects and indirect objects of verbs should be int he objective cause. The object of the preposition should be in the objective case.

Subject- That vase is very old.

Predicate Nominative- They should have gotten the award.

Direct Object- Mom called me to the phone.

Indirect Object- The person handed her the name tag.

Object of the Preposition- We went into the house.

Chapter 11- Using Modifiers Correctly (Comparison and Placement)

Adjectives make the meanings of nouns and pronouns more specific. Adverbs make the meanings of verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs more specific. The positive degree is used when at least one thing is being described. The comparative degree is used when two things or groups are being compared. The superlative degree is used when three or more things or groups of things are being compared. A prepositional phrase consist of a preposition, a noun or a pronoun called the object of the preposition, and any modifiers of that object. A participial phrase consist of a present participle or a past participle and its modifiers and complements. An adjective clause modifies a noun or a pronoun.

Adjective- She gave a big leap for the team.

Adverb- She cheered loudly.

Positive Degree- The suit case is heavy.

Comparative Degree- My suit case is heavier than yours.

Superlative Degree- My suit case is the heaviest of them all.

Prepositional Phrase- We went into the air port.

Participial Phrase- Walking to school, Ginny, Kelsey, Emily, and Vicky found a wallet

Adjective Clause- The Forth of July picnic that we had in the park was fun.

Chapter 12- A Glossary of Usage (Common usage Problems)

Nonstandard English is the language that does not follow the rules and guidelines of standard english. Standard english is language that is grammatically correct and appropriate in formal and informal situations. Formal identifies usage that is appropriate in serious speaking and writing situations (such as in speeches and compositions for school). The label informal indicates standard usage common in conversation in everyday writing such as personal letters.