IPS EXAM STUDY GUIDE

By: Hannah Weinstein

Lab Safety

FOR EVERY LAB:

Goggles must be kept ON YOUR FACE until Mr. Leeds says to put them away.

Report ALL accidents/ spills to Mr. Leeds immediately

IN CASE OF EMERGENCY:

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SAFETY EQUIPMENT IN CLASSROOM:

Fire extinguisher

Fire blanket

Eye wash/shower

CHEMICALS:

Never taste chemicals

Always WAFT liquids to detect odor

Never WAFT solids/ powders

Avoid touching chemicals

Always wash hands with soap and water after the lab

FLUSH SKIN WITH WATER IF OCNTACT WITH CHEMICALS OCCURS AND NOTIFY MR.LEEDS

GLASS:

Hot glass and cold glass look the same

Never use chipped or broken glass

Never use force to remove or insert glass

ALCOCHOL BURNERS:

Roll up sleeves, put UP long hair, Not just pull back

Never Walk away from a lit burner

Never point the open end of a hot test tube at yourself or someone else

Do not look down into a test tube/beaker while it is being heated

DILUTING ACID:

Acid must be added to water

Never add water to acid.

Could cause and exothermic reaction

Water is less dense (lighter) than acid so it will sit on top of acid and could splash out

END OF EXPERIMENT:

Make sure burner is capped and flame is out

Clean up area and materials completely

Laws of Conservation of Mass

In a closed sysstem mass will remain constant regardless of the actions of the processes inside the closed sytem.

Mass is always conserved, however in a nuclear reaction some mass is lost. The energy released in a nuclear reaction will be absorbed into surrounding material, adding mass to it. So, the mass is not really "lost".

Mass and Volume Notes

Objects that are made of the same substance that have the same volume will have the same mass (regardless of shape)

The mass of an object will double if its mass doubles.

Objects that have the same volume, but are made of different substances will not have the same mass.

Vocab

CHAPTER 1 VOCABULARY:

Observation: infromation obtained by the senses-often by direct measurement

Inference: a conclusion based upon known observations

Hypothesis: a proposed solution to a scientific problem

Control Group: the group that is standard for comparison in any experiment

Experimental Group: the group receiving the variable being tested

Control Factors: the variables that are held constant. They are the same for both the control group and the experimental group

Indicator: a substance used to show the presence of another substance.

Volume: the amount of space something occupies. True of solids, liquids, and gases.

Volume Displacement Technique: quick and easy way to determing the volume of a solid or gas.

Mass: the amount of matter in a substance (true of solids, liquids, and gasses)

Meniscus: the curved portion of a liquid when in a container. Must read the bottom of the meniscus at eye level- for proper measurement.

CHAPTER 2 VOCABULARY:

Histogram: a bar graph that shows the number of times a value is represented for a large simplifying group.

Conservation of Mass: In all changes, mass is exactly conserved, provided nothing is added or allowed ro escape. Must be a closed system. Not true for a volume.

Laws of Nature: Guessed generlizations based on many experiments. Can be adjusted when necessary to account for any changes in limitizations of a law.

CHAPTER 3 VOCABULARY:

Characteristic Properties: Properties that show differences between substances. Examples: density, boiling point, solubility, melting point.

Plateau: The flat portion of a graph. Indicates no change in the dependant variable. (y axis)

Phase Diagram: A graph that shows the changes in state of matter for any substance. Represents physically challenge in the substance.

Scientific Method

1. Identify a problem

2. Gather info

3. Form hypothesis/ theory

4. Perform experiment

5. Analyze data

6. Conclusion

Chapter 1: Reaction in a Bag

Scholar Reaction In The Bag Inquiry Demonstration and Lab Activity

Chapter 1.1: Baking Soda Lab

Blue Dot Questions:

1. Where does the gas come from? The gas comes from the baking soda because when you heat an empty test tube, there is no gas.

2. If the color changes and is diferent that the heated bking soda, did it change? Yes

3. How many cubic centimeters of water are required to fill a graduated cylinder to the 50. ml mark? 50 cubic centimeters

4. A student has a number of cubes that measure 1cm along an edge. How many cubes will be needed to build a cube that measures 2cm along an edge. (there are 6sides) 8cm3

POST LAB:

(look at diagram)

Baking Soda - Sodium Bicarbonate

Control Group - unheated baking soda and tea

Experimental Group - heated baking soda and tea

indicator - tea

control factors - amount of baking soda we used

amt of tea

some type of tea

Experimental Errors:

a whole in the rubber tubing

stopper is not on tight

cap burner before removing tube

Lab 1.1 Heating Baking Soda

EXTRA EXTRA READ ALL ABOUT IT!

Standard Unit of Length: Meter (m)

1 centimeter: .01 m

100 cm: 1m

1ml : 1cm3

1kg: 2.2 pounds

1kg: 1,000 g

ALL SCIENCE USES THE METRIC SYSTEM!!!!!

1.3 THIS IS NOT A LAB THIS IS MEASURING RULERS AND CYLINDERS

SEE PAGE 4 OF NOTES FOR BOX QUESTIONS

Single Pan Balance Notes:

Check that pan is clean and dry

Always "zero" balance before EACH massing

Push all riders to zero (left)

Use adjustment knob if needed

NEVER switch pans

Pick up by red bar only

Return riders to zero when done

1.4 Measuring Volume by Displacement of Water Lab

See Chart of V. of Dry Sand etc.

EQ:

Why were lab groups instructed to use different amounts of sand?

The purpose was to show that if we all are assigned different amounts and we are not precise with our answers, the numbers can be completely different.

Does it matter how much sand you began with no matter how many lab groups? No, the number of sand all was around 40%.

How would you fing the weight of a cork stopper? Attach a weight with a known volume to the cork, and weigh it down. After, subtract the volume of the weight and water when done.

Lab 1-4 Measuring Volume By Displacement

1.8 The Sensitivity of a Balance

SEE MR. LEEDS FOR HELP ON THIS CHART!

Change in Mass over the number of yes's equals the sensitivity.

How would you find the volume of a sponge? L W H

What are you actually finding?volume of the air space and sponge

Chapter 2.1 The Mass of Disolved Salt

I conclude that as the salt disolves, the balances mass will begin to change, and will weigh less.

Experimental Errors:

Salt spills from cap to bottle

remove cap before mf. something could spill out

not shaking long enough

cap is not on tight enough H20 spills out

not drying cap, starts dissolving

if outside bottle is wet during Mi.

BQ:

Do you need to have the mass of the water by itself and the salt by itself? No, you only need to know the mass before and after.

2.4 Mass of Ice and Water

See Chart (one of the blue marked pages)

2.5 The Mass of Copper and Sulfur

See Chart (page after blue mark)

Experimental Errors:

If there is a hole in the rubber sheet

if you shake the test tube and sulfur gets stuck to the side

Sheet not on tightly

BQs:

13.) What is the apparant percentage change in mass of the reacting substance?

change in mass over mi equals x over 100.

14.) see directions above. (pg.37) Do you think it reasonable that mass remained the same- yes because the change in mass is within the sensitivity of the balance.

2.6 Mass of a Gas

See Chart

Experimental Errors:

If the bottle is wet on the outside then there will be extra mass.

Cap not on tightly

Not drying outside of bottle before Mi

Inside cap is not dry

BQs:

There is a law, what comes up must come down is this true and does this aply to the conservation of mass? Yes, it follow the laws of gravity. You must be withing a gravitational pull though.

On a sunny day the sky is blue. Is this a law of nature? Why or why not? Yes, if there is no are pollution, smog, the sky is blue.

Look a bq the last question on pg 40.

ASK Mr. Leeds MAJOR QUESTION ABOUT MASS OF THE GAS!! half page folded

Exp. 2.6 The Mass of a Gas

Chapter 3.1 Propery of a Substance and an Object (not real lab)

Property of an object: describes the object itself

Property of a substance: Identify what the object is made out of

3.2 Mass and Volume

Experimental Errors:

Re mass the same cylinder

Cylinder is wet when massed

Not enough h2o is graduated cylinder

H2o splashes out of graduated cylinder

Lab 3-2 Mass and Volume

3.3 Density

DENSITY IS A SUBSTANCE!

m/V=d

G/CM3

different substance=different densities

Experimental Errors:

Mix up cubes

Measure same side of cube/slab twice

measure end of ruler not zero

measure volume of rock befoer massing

3.6 The Density of Liquids

See Chart

Experimental Errors:

Cylinder contaminated

liquid sticks to inside wall of cylinder

dry out cylinder after massed

Magnesium Sulfate - Epsom Salt

3.7 The Density of a Gas

See Chart

To find the density - Mass of Gass/ Volume of Gas which is (change is mass/ change in volume)

Experimental Errors:

Some water could leak out of the bottle

Spill some water when finding volume in bottle.

If you touch the tablet after the Mi

Hole in the tubing

Air bubble in bottle

Foil left behind.

Gass is Carbon Dioxide

REVIEW PAGE 51 !!!! :D