Frederick Boal

Ethnic Segregation

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Frederick W. Boal was born on May 3, 1934 in Belfast, Northern Ireland.

He works as a Professor Emeritus of Human Geography at Queen's University Belfast.

His education includes getting his Bachelors Degree at Queens University Belfast, Master of Arts at Queens University Belfast, Master of Science at the University of Michigan, and Doctor of Philosophy at the University of Michigan.

Geographic Accomplishments

Frederick Boal's special interest is in ethnic residential segregation in cities. His investigations have focused mainly on Belfast. He has also developed a number of comparative frameworks applicable to the study of ethnic and ethno-national segregation globally.

He has received multiple awards for for his substantial contributions to social geography, and to regional planning and urban development.

His Theory

In 1976, Frederick Boal suggested that "Spatial concentrations of an ethnic group can provide it with a base for action in the struggle of its members with society in general. This struggle may take a peaceful political form or may be violent." With these suggestions, he refers to the protection of Costa Nostra criminals in American-Italian communities in the US. He also refers to guerrilla warfare in the Northern Ireland conflict.

What does this mean to us?

So basically, in all of Fredrick Boal's research, I understood that when there is a group of people from an ethnicity, that group will be able to try and work together when there is a struggle with society. These struggles could be peaceful or violent. He also talks about how sometimes it leads to those people electing a leader to speak for the ethnic group, so people don't just ignore them.

In the United States, we have lots of diversity, and we can see parts of his theory take place in many different settings where ethno-cultural diversity takes place.

Created By:

Maggie Enright

Hour 5

March 20, 2016