Constitutional Era

By: Martine Epperson

XYZ Affair

The XYZ Affair was a political and diplomatic episode in 1997 and 1998, early in the administration of John Adams involving a confrontation between the United States and the Republican of France that led to an undeclared war called the Quasi-War. XYZ are the names of French diplomats Hottinguer(X), Bellamy(Y), and Hautevel(Y). These American Diplomates were approached by XYZ, Charles Cotesworth, John Marshall, and Elbridge Gary. Charles Cotesworth was head of the American Commission.

Whiskey Rebellion

The Whiskey Rebellion can also be referred as the Whiskey Insurrection. The Whiskey Rebellion was in-forced by George Washington and was primarily located in the Western Part of Pennsylvania. Whiskey was by far the most popular distilled beverage in the 18th century U.S. The excise tax was put on Whiskey to help pay for War debt. During the Whiskey Rebellion there was 3-4 Rebels killed, 170 Rebels Captured. The United States Army was led by George Washington and he had 0 casualties although 12 died by illness or in accidents and 2 civilians accidentally killed by Government Troops.

Shay's Rebellion

Shay's Rebellion was an armed uprising in Mass. (most;y in and around Springfield) during 1786 and 1787. Shay's Rebellion was led by Daniel Shays he led 4 thousand rebels called Shayites. Shay's Rebellion met with defeat with a privately raised militia. The Anti-government protesters had 4 killed, dozens wounded, many arrested, and 2 hanged afterward. State and privately raised militia had 1 killed, and many wounded. Benjamin Lincoln helped lead the Private Militia during Shay's Rebellion.