IPS Study Guide
- Identify Problem
- Gather Info
- Form Hypothesis/Theory
- Perform Experiment
- Analyze Data
Lab: Reaction in a Bag
- Solid A, Solid B, Red Liquid: gas produced, cold and hot, turns yellow
- Solid A and a Liquid: gets hot
- Solid B: and a Liquid: gets cold
Solid A and Solid B with a Liquid will produce a gas
To have the Liquid turn yellow you need Solid A, Solid B, and Red Liquid
Ch 1 Vocabulary:
Inference- a conclusion based upon known observations.
Hypothesis- a proposed solution to a scientific problem
Control Group- the group that is the standard for comparison in any experiment
Experimental Group- the group receiving the variable being tested
Control Factors- the variables that are held constant. They are the same for both the control group and the experimental group
Indicator- a substance used to show the presence of another substance.
Volume- the amount of space something occupies. True of solids, liquids, and gases.
Volume Displacement Technique- quick and easy way to determined the volume of a solid or gas.
Mass- the amount of matter in a substance (true of solids, liquids, and gases)
Meniscus- the curved part of a liquid when in a container. Must read the bottom of the meniscus-at eye level-for proper measurement
Lab 1.1 Baking Soda
*Baking Soda releases a gas when heated.
*Condensation forms inside the test tube towards the top:
- The top of the test tube is much cooler than the bottom
- When warm gas touches cooler surfaces it turns back to a liquid.
Control Group: Unheated baking soda and tea
Experiment: Heated baking Soda
Control Factors: Amount of baking soda, amount of tea, type of tea, amount of stirring
After baking soda is heated it is no longer baking soda.
*The baking soda can not produce more condensation then itself.
*Baking Soda=Sodium Bicarbonate
1.2 Volume Notes
Volume: l x w x h (a x b x c)
Standard Unit of Length: meter (m)
*1 meter= 100 centimeters
*1 centimeter= .01 meters
Unit Cube: a mall cube 1 cm on each edge (1 cubic centimeter)
Volume of Liquids:
*Always check the intervals on the scale
Units: milliliters (ml) or cm 3
1 ml =1 cm 3
Single Pan Balance Notes
2. Always "zero" the balance
- Push all riders to zero
- Use adjustment knob if needed
3. NEVER switch pans
4. Pick up balance by the red bar
5. Return riders to zero when done
Lab 1.4 Measuring Volume by Displacement of Water Method
Fine Air Space: Dry Sand (air) - Sand Alone= Volume of Air
Fraction of Sand that is Air: is over of- air over sand
It didn't matter how much sand you begin with the % of air space with the sand was all around 40%.
Need to pour the sand into the water.
If you pour the water into the sand the water will sit on top of the sand.
Lab 1.8 The Sensitivity of a Balance
∆: Delta (change)
∆M: Change in mass
Sensitivity of the Balance: The margin of error (plus or minus) your balance has when massing an object (with 0.02)
After 1982: 2.5% copper, 97.5% zinc
In 1943 pennies were zinc plated steel
Ch 2 Vocabulary:
Conservation of Mass- in all changes, mass is exactly conserved provided nothing is added or allowed to escape. Must be a closed system. Not true for volume.
Laws of Nature- guessed generalizations based on many experiments can be adjusted when necessary to account for any changes in the limitation of a law.
Lab 2.1 The Mass of Dissolved Salt
Mf: Final Mass
∆M: Change in Mass
Mi= mass of the bottle with the water, cap, and salt together but not mixed
Mf= mass of the bottle with the water, cap, and salt when all mixed
*When the salt dissolves into the water there was a decrease in mass.
*To get the salt back have the water evaporate and you will be left with the salt. The salt will not evaporate with the water.
Lab 2.4 The Mass of Ice and Water
Condensation: comes from the warm water vapor touching the cooler surface of the containner. It changes from a gas to a liquid. On the outside of the bottleWater Vapor: much warmer than the surface of the bottle
When massing for the final mass need to wipe of condensation; if not it will add mass.
Lab 2.5 The Mass of Copper and Sulfur
Lab 2.6 The Mass of a Gas
Law of Conservation of Mass
Closed system- anything that is shut (has a cap)*In a closed system mass will remain constant regardless of the actions of the processes inside the closed system
Mass is always conserved however, in a nuclear reaction some mass is lost. The energy released in a nuclear reaction will be absorbed into surrounding material, adding mass to it. So the mass is not really "lost."
Ch 3 Vocab:
Plateau- the flat portion of a graph. Indicates no change in the dependent variable (y axis)
Phase Diagram- a graph that shows the changes in state of matter for any substance. Represents physical changes in the substances.
Barometric Pressure- air pressure generated by the atmosphere
Density-mass per unit volume of nay substance. Unit of measure is g/cm3
Property of Substance: identify what the object is made out of
Lab 3.2 Mass and Volume
Yes because all the aluminum cylinders should have a mass of 2.7g
Mass and Volume Notes
- Objects that are made of the same substance that have the same volume will gave the same mass, regardless of their shape.
- The mass of an object will double if its volume doubles
- Objects that have the same volume but are made of different substances will NOT have the same mass.
Lab 3.5 The Density of Solids
All the rocks have different densities because the rock id formed by many substances being compressed together. Different substances=Different densities. sedimentary rock
Lab 3.6 The Density of Liquids
- Dissolved in the liquids
- Liquid A has more Epsom salt in it.
Lab 3.7 The Density of a Gas
Vi- Volume of the bottle
∆V Change in Volume- Volume of the Gas
Mass is lost because the gas leaves the test tube and goes into the bottle (negative ∆M)
Gas is carbon dioxide because it comes from sodium bicarbonate
3.8 The Range of Densities
V= l x w x h (meters)
need to convert to cm
air density= M over Volume of room